Modulating lung immune cells by pulmonary delivery of antigen-specific nanoparticles to treat autoimmune disease

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Science Advances  16 Oct 2020:
Vol. 6, no. 42, eabc9317
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abc9317


Antigen-specific particles can treat autoimmunity, and pulmonary delivery may provide for easier delivery than intravenous or subcutaneous routes. The lung is a “hub” for autoimmunity where autoreactive T cells pass before arriving at disease sites. Here, we report that targeting lung antigen-presenting cells (APCs) via antigen-loaded poly(lactide-co-glycolide) particles modulates lung CD4+ T cells to tolerize murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. Particles directly delivered to the lung via intratracheal administration demonstrated more substantial reduction in EAE severity when compared with particles delivered to the liver and spleen via intravenous administration. Intratracheally delivered particles were associated with lung APCs and decreased costimulatory molecule expression on the APCs, which inhibited CD4+ T cell proliferation and reduced their population in the central nervous system while increasing them in the lung. This study supports noninvasive pulmonary particle delivery, such as inhalable administration, to treat autoimmune disease.

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