Research ArticleCORONAVIRUS

The unfolding COVID-19 pandemic: A probability-based, nationally representative study of mental health in the United States

See allHide authors and affiliations

Science Advances  14 Oct 2020:
Vol. 6, no. 42, eabd5390
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abd5390
  • Table 1 Adjusted regression coefficients for OLS regression models predicting pandemic-related acute stress and depressive symptoms to the COVID-19 outbreak (N = 6514).

    Reference group for cohort is cohort 1 (18 to 28 March 2020); reference group for ethnicity is white, non-Hispanic; reference group for residential area is urban; reference group for region is Northeast. All models were estimated using sampling weights to account for sampling design and differences between the sample and U.S. Census benchmarks. Standardized coefficients and confidence intervals were estimated by calculating z scores for all model variables (including categorical indicators) and fitting a multiple OLS regression model to the standardized transformation.

    Acute stressDepressive symptoms
    Predictor variablesβ95% CIbβ95% CIb
    Cohort
      2 (29 March to 7
    April)
    0.05*0.01, 0.090.070.04−0.00, 0.080.06
      3 (8 to 18 April)0.10***0.06, 0.140.150.12***0.07, 0.160.17
    Outbreak-related
    media exposure
    (daily hours/week)
    0.15***0.10, 0.190.020.13***0.08, 0.170.01
    Relative media
    consumption
    0.12***0.08, 0.150.000.04*0.00, 0.080.00
    Conflicting info from
    news media
    0.17***0.13, 0.200.120.09***0.05, 0.130.06
    Personal exposures0.09***0.06, 0.130.150.11***0.06, 0.150.17
    Work exposures−0.03−0.06, 0.01−0.04−0.07***−0.11, −0.03−0.11
    Community
    exposures
    0.00−0.04, 0.030.00−0.01−0.05, 0.02−0.01
    Secondary stressors0.19***0.15, 0.240.120.12***0.07, 0.160.07
    Prior mental health
    diagnoses
    0.18***0.13, 0.220.330.27***0.22, 0.320.49
    Prior physical health
    diagnoses
    0.06**0.02, 0.090.030.08***0.04, 0.120.05
    Age−0.10***−0.14, −0.06−0.00−0.18***−0.23, −0.14−0.01
    Race/ethnicity
      Black, non-Hispanic−0.01−0.05, 0.03−0.02−0.04−0.08, 0.00−0.09
      Other, non-Hispanic−0.01−0.04, 0.02−0.02−0.00−0.03, 0.03−0.01
      Hispanic0.01−0.02, 0.050.030.03−0.01, 0.070.07
    Bachelor’s degree +0.02−0.01, 0.050.02−0.03−0.06, 0.01−0.04
    Female sex0.12***0.08, 0.150.170.02−0.02, 0.050.02
    Income−0.02−0.06, 0.02−0.00−0.08***−0.12, −0.04−0.03
    Residential area
      Suburban−0.03*−0.07, −0.00−0.08−0.04**−0.07, −0.01−0.10
      Town0.01−0.03, 0.040.01−0.01−0.04, 0.03−0.02
      Rural0.01−0.03, 0.050.030.00−0.03, 0.040.01
    Region
      Midwest−0.07**−0.12, −0.02−0.11−0.03−0.08, 0.03−0.04
      South−0.07**−0.12, −0.02−0.11−0.03−0.09, 0.03−0.04
      West−0.06*−0.11, −0.01−0.09−0.01−0.07, 0.04−0.02
    Constant0.00−0.03, 0.031.230.02−0.01, 0.050.60
    Model statisticsF(24,6484.7) = 32.77; P < .001F(24,6484.6) = 23.59; P < .001
    R2 = 0.272R2 = 0.244

    *P < 0.05.

    **P < 0.01.

    ***P < 0.001.

    Supplementary Materials

    • Supplementary Materials

      The unfolding COVID-19 pandemic: A probability-based, nationally representative study of mental health in the U.S.

      E. Alison Holman, Rebecca R. Thompson, Dana Rose Garfin and Roxane Cohen Silver

      Download Supplement

      This PDF file includes:

      • Tables S1 to S4

      Files in this Data Supplement:

    Stay Connected to Science Advances

    Navigate This Article