Research ArticleANTHROPOLOGY

The age of Clovis—13,050 to 12,750 cal yr B.P.

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Science Advances  21 Oct 2020:
Vol. 6, no. 43, eaaz0455
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aaz0455

Figures

  • Fig. 1 Map of the location of dated Clovis sites.

    Clovis sites with credible ages (red circles): Jake Bluff, OK (1); Cactus Hill, VA (2); Colby, WY (3); Sheriden Cave, OH (4); Lange-Ferguson, SD (5); Shawnee-Minisink, PA (6); Domebo, OK (7); Anzick, MT (8); Dent, CO (9); La Prele, WY (10); Clovis sites with equivocal ages (blue triangles): Blackwater Draw, NM (11); Lehner, AZ (12); Murray Springs, AZ (13); East Wenatchee, WA (14); Aubrey, TX (15); El Fin Del Mundo, Mexico (16); Paleo Crossing, OH (17); Sloth Hole, FL (18). Dated sites proposed to be Clovis (yellow diamond): Casper, WY (19); Sheaman, WY (20). Color overlays on the North American map indicate high (brown), moderate (orange), and low (yellow) densities of Clovis occupations (4). Rocky Mountains (purple). Laurentide and Cordilleran Ice Sheets (white) at ~12,500 cal yr B.P. (4).

  • Fig. 2 Calibrated ages for the 10 well-dated Clovis sites.

    Calibrated ages shown at one sigma and Clovis range (~13,050 to 12,750 cal yr B.P.) in brown. Allerød and Younger Dryas climate periods shown. Red dashed line indicates age of Late Pleistocene megafauna extinction.

Tables

  • Table 1 Radiocarbon dates from Clovis sites.

    SiteDateCalibrated dateLaboratory numberMaterial datedRemarks
    14C yr B.P.cal yr B.P.*
    Lange-Ferguson, SD11,110 ± 4013,095–12,990UCIAMS-11345Mammoth bone (XAD)
    Dent, CO11,065 ± 3513,075–12,930UCIAMS-11339Mammoth bone (XAD)
    10,940 ± 3012,885–12,770UCIAMS-11340Mammoth bone (XAD)
    10,960 ± 3512,905–12,780UCIAMS-116403Mammoth bone (XAD)
    11,055 ± 5013,070–12,925OxA-X-2736-11Mammoth bone
    (hydroxyproline)
    11,155 ± 5013,160–13,005OxA-X-2736-12Mammoth bone
    (hydroxyproline)
    Average11,010 ± 1512,970–12,845
    Domebo, OK10,960 ± 3012,905–12,820UCIAMS-11341Mammoth bone (XAD)
    Shawnee-Minisink, PA10,940 ± 9012,960–12,755Beta-101935Carbonized Hawthorn
    seed (Crataegus)
    Hearth
    10,900 ± 4012,830–12,760Beta-127162Carbonized Hawthorn
    seed (Crataegus)
    Hearth
    10,820 ± 5012,815–12,730Beta-203865Carbonized Hawthorn
    seed (Crataegus)
    Hearth
    10,915 ± 2512,830–12,770UCIAMS-24865Carbonized Hawthorn
    seed (Crataegus)
    Hearth
    11,020 ± 3013,050–12,850UCIAMS-24866Carbonized Hawthorn
    seed (Crataegus)
    Hearth
    10,970 ± 5012,925–12,770OxA-1731Carbonized Hawthorn
    seed (Crataegus)
    Hearth
    Average10,940 ± 1512,885–12,770
    Sheriden Cave, OH10,915 ± 3012,830–12,770UCIAMS-38249Bone (XAD)Bone point
    La Prele, WY11,035 ± 5013,065–12,900OxA-X-2736-14Mammoth bone
    (hydroxyproline)
    10,965 ± 3012,910–12,825UCIAMS-206764Mammoth bone (XAD)
    Average10,985 ± 2512,915–12,835
    Colby, WY10,790 ± 3012,750–12,735UCIAMS-11342Mammoth bone (XAD)Bone pile 2
    10,950 ± 3012,895–12,775UCIAMS-11343Mammoth bone (XAD)Bone pile 2
    Average10,870 ± 2012,820–12,800
    Jake Bluff, OK10,750 ± 4012,745–12,720CAMS-79940Bison tooth (XAD)
    10,840 ± 4512,820–12,735CAMS-90968Bison bone (XAD)
    10,700 ± 4512,735–12,690CAMS-90969Bison bone (XAD)
    10,810 ± 2512,755–12,740UCIAMS-61657Bison bone (XAD)
    10,885 ± 3512,820–12,760UCIAMS-59874Bison bone (XAD)
    Average10,820 ± 1012,755–12,745
    Anzick, MT10,915 ± 5012,880–12,760OxA-X-2739-54Human bone
    (hydroxyproline)
    Anzick-1 cranium
    11,025 ± 3013,055–12,895UCIAMS-61661Elk (XAD)Foreshaft
    10,900 ± 5012,835–12,755OxA-X-2739-55Elk (hydroxyproline)Foreshaft
    11,050 ± 5513,070–12,920OxA-X-2739-56Elk (hydroxyproline)Foreshaft
    Average10,985 ± 2012,905–12,840
    Cactus Hill, VA10,860 ± 6012,825–12,745Beta-266341CharcoalHearth
    10,840 ± 4012,820–12,740Beta-206060CharcoalHearth
    10,810 ± 4012,760–12,730Beta-233642CharcoalHearth
    10,890 ± 4012,825–12,760Beta-233643CharcoalHearth
    10,910 ± 4012,835–12,760Beta-210651CharcoalHearth
    Average10,860 ± 2012,820–12,745

    *Ages calibrated using IntCal20, Calib 8.1 (9).

    • Table 2 Radiocarbon dates from Murray Springs and Lehner, Arizona.

      Radiocarbon dates from Murray Springs and Lehner, Arizona..

      SiteDateCalibrated dateLaboratory
      number
      Material datedRemarks
      14C yr B.P.cal yr B.P.*
      Murray Springs
      11,190 ± 18013,290–12,905SMU-18CharcoalDispersed
      11,150 ± 45013,585–12,620A-805CharcoalDispersed
      11,080 ± 18013,160–12,825TX-1413CharcoalDispersed
      10,930 ± 17013,055–12,745TX-1462CharcoalDispersed
      10,890 ± 18013,055–12,725SMU-27CharcoalDispersed
      10,840 ± 7012,825–12,735SMU-41CharcoalDispersed
      10,840 ± 14012,960–12,690SMU-42CharcoalDispersed
      10,710 ± 16012,835–12,480TX-1459CharcoalDispersed
      10,760 ± 10012,825–12,675A-1045CharcoalHearth
      Lehner
      11,470 ± 11013,455–13,240SMU-308CharcoalDispersed
      11,170 ± 20013,240–12,845SMU-264CharcoalDispersed
      11,080 ± 20013,160–12,780SMU-181CharcoalDispersed
      11,080 ± 23013,160–12,770SMU-196CharcoalDispersed
      10,950 ± 9012,965–12,760SMU-290CharcoalDispersed
      10,950 ± 11012,970–12,755SMU-194CharcoalDispersed
      10,940 ± 10012,965–12,755A-378CharcoalDispersed
      10,860 ± 28013,150–12,490SMU-164CharcoalDispersed
      10,770 ± 14012,890–12,620SMU-168CharcoalDispersed
      10,710 ± 9012,750–12,625SMU-340CharcoalDispersed
      10,700 ± 15012,825–12,485SMU-297CharcoalDispersed
      10,620 ± 30012,830–12,000SMU-347CharcoalDispersed

      *Ages calibrated using IntCal20, Calib 8.1 (9).

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