Research ArticleECOLOGY

Biodiversity enhances the multitrophic control of arthropod herbivory

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Science Advances  06 Nov 2020:
Vol. 6, no. 45, eabb6603
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abb6603
  • Fig. 1 Hypothesized effects of plant diversity on multitrophic control of herbivory.

    The simultaneous roles of the resource concentration hypothesis and enemies hypothesis in constraining herbivore impacts are described by (A) isolated bottom-up (Uij) and top-down (Dji) effects on herbivores, respectively, yielding the emergent net herbivore control (log ratio of top-down versus bottom-up effects). This is expected to drive a decline in (B) biomass-specific effects of herbivores on plants.

  • Fig. 2 Effects of plant diversity on food web energy fluxes.

    Plant diversity–energy flux relationships are shown for total summed energy flux (log-transformed) to all trophic groups in the arthropod food webs (A), to all herbivores (B), and to all predators (C). Trend lines show the partial effects of plant diversity from the linear mixed effects models (see table S2) after accounting for different years [± 95% confidence interval (CI)].

  • Fig. 3 Effects of plant diversity on bottom-up and top-down control of herbivores and their impacts on plants.

    We show empirical support for effects of plant diversity on (A) bottom-up pressure (log-transformed Uvh) applied by plants on arthropod herbivores (green symbols) and top-down pressure (log-transformed Dph) applied by predators on arthropod herbivores (blue symbols; P > 0.05) and for (B) the log ratio of top-down versus bottom-up pressure simultaneously imposed on herbivores. As expected, this led to (C) declining top-down pressure (log-transformed Dhv) of herbivores on plants (per unit plant biomass) with increasing plant diversity. Trend lines show the partial effects of plant diversity from the linear mixed effects models (see table S4) after accounting for different years (± 95% CI).

  • Fig. 4 Calculation of top-down and bottom-up effects in the arthropod food webs.

    Fij is the total flux from resource to consumer, B is the community biomass of resource or consumer, and eij is the efficiency with which energy from a resource is assimilated (for allocation to, e.g., biomass production, movement, etc.).

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary Materials

    Biodiversity enhances the multitrophic control of arthropod herbivory

    A. D. Barnes, C. Scherber, U. Brose, E. T. Borer, A. Ebeling, B. Gauzens, D. P. Giling, J. Hines, F. Isbell, C. Ristok, D. Tilman, W. W. Weisser, N. Eisenhauer

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    • Figs. S1 to S3
    • Tables S1 to S6
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