Research ArticleANTHROPOLOGY

Female hunters of the early Americas

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Science Advances  04 Nov 2020:
Vol. 6, no. 45, eabd0310
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abd0310
  • Fig. 1 Geography of Wilamaya Patjxa.

    (A) Site topography and excavation locations. UTM, Universal Transverse Mercator, Word Geodetic System 1984 (WGS84); topo., topographic contour. (B) Location of five burials including six individuals. Only individuals 1 and 6 are Early Holocene in age and associated with big-game hunting tools.

  • Fig. 2 WMP6, a 17- to 19-year-old female with hunting toolkit in situ dating to 9 cal. ka.

    (A) Orthorectified, georeferenced photograph. (B) Vector map showing positions of skeletal materials and associated grave goods. (C) In situ artifacts from burial pit floor including projectile points (1 to 7), unmodified flakes (8 to 10), retouched flakes (11 to 13), a possible backed knife (14), thumbnail scrapers (15 and 16), scrapers/choppers (17 to 19), burnishing stones (17, 20, and 21), and red ocher nodules (22 to 24). Photo credit: Randall Haas, University of California, Davis.

  • Fig. 3 WMP1, a 25- to 30-year-old male with associated projectile points in situ.

    (A) Map with orthorectified photograph. (B) Vector map showing positions of skeletal materials and artifacts. (C) In situ projectile points including a black igneous 3E point and white chert 3B point. Photo credit: Randall Haas, University of California, Davis.

  • Fig. 4 Geography of Wilamaya Patjxa and early burials of the Americas.

    Female and male burials with (+) and without (−) big-game hunting tools are indicated. WGS84, World Geodetic System 1984.

  • Fig. 5 Probability of observing 11 female hunters in a random sample of 27 hunters given 0 to 100% probability of female big-game hunting.

    Plausible models range from 30 to 50% female participation, indicating that big-game hunting was likely gender neutral or nearly so among Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene populations.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary Materials

    Female hunters of the early Americas

    Randall Haas, James Watson, Tammy Buonasera, John Southon, Jennifer C. Chen, Sarah Noe, Kevin Smith, Carlos Viviano Llave, Jelmer Eerkens, Glendon Parker

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    • Supplementary Materials and Methods
    • Figs. S1 to S9
    • Tables S1 to S16
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