Research ArticleCELL BIOLOGY

TRPML2 is an osmo/mechanosensitive cation channel in endolysosomal organelles

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Science Advances  11 Nov 2020:
Vol. 6, no. 46, eabb5064
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abb5064

Abstract

Endolysosomes are dynamic, intracellular compartments, regulating their surface-to-volume ratios to counteract membrane swelling or shrinkage caused by osmotic challenges upon tubulation and vesiculation events. While osmosensitivity has been extensively described on the plasma membrane, the mechanisms underlying endolysosomal surface-to-volume ratio changes and identities of involved ion channels remain elusive. Endolysosomes mediate endocytosis, exocytosis, cargo transport, and sorting of material for recycling or degradation. We demonstrate the endolysosomal cation channel TRPML2 to be hypotonicity/mechanosensitive, a feature crucial to its involvement in fast-recycling processes of immune cells. We demonstrate that the phosphoinositide binding pocket is required for TRPML2 hypotonicity-sensitivity, as substitution of L314 completely abrogates hypotonicity-sensitivity. Last, the hypotonicity-insensitive TRPML2 mutant L314R slows down the fast recycling pathway, corroborating the functional importance of hypotonicity-sensitive TRPML2. Our results highlight TRPML2 as an accelerator of endolysosomal trafficking by virtue of its hypotonicity-sensitivity, with implications in immune cell surveillance and viral trafficking.

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