Research ArticleAPPLIED SCIENCES AND ENGINEERING

Multilayer fabrication of durable catheter-deployable soft robotic sensor arrays for efficient left atrial mapping

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Science Advances  13 Nov 2020:
Vol. 6, no. 46, eabc6800
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abc6800
  • Fig. 1 Overview of the biosensor integrated catheter-deployable balloon.

    Flex-PCB and TPU sheets are processed through various fabrication techniques to obtain a single linear SRSA from which an SRSA cage device is fabricated. This device is inserted into the left atrium using a mock catheter through the puncture made in the foramen ovale in the patient’s septal wall. Photo credit: Varun Kashyap and Alexandre Caprio, Weill Cornell Medicine.

  • Fig. 2 Postprocessing of stretchable electronics.

    (A) Stretchable electronics before laser cutting. (B) The selective laser-cutting process. The rastering path of the laser is depicted. (C) Stretchable electronics after postprocessing. Inset shows the underlying PI preserved after the laser-cutting process. (D) Cross-sectional (end-on) confocal image of the electronics before laser cutting. Scale bar, 0.1 mm. (E) Cross-sectional (end-on) confocal image of the electronics after laser cutting. Scale bar, 0.1 mm. (F) SEM image of the final laser-cut stretchable electronics. Scale bar, 0.3 mm. (G) Results for the tensile test are shown between preprocessed and postprocessed sensor arrays. The stretchability of the postprocessed sensor arrays can be clearly observed.

  • Fig. 3 Mechanical stability and durability analysis.

    (A) Plot shows resistance as a function of actuations for a single actuator. The actuation was carried out at 10 psi (68.95 kPa). Inset shows the probe station used to measure resistance using an I-V sweep. (B) μ-CT images and volume-rendered segmentations of actuated linear SRSA are shown. (C) Actuation pocket where maximum deformation takes place is simulated using ANSYS workbench. Strain values are compared between confocal images for an actuated pocket and that obtained from FEA analysis. Photo credit: Varun Kashyap, Weill Cornell Medicine.

  • Fig. 4 Conformability analysis.

    SRSA is deployed in four patient-specific 3D printed left atria, and the μ-CT images and volume-rendered segmentations are shown in figures (A) to (D). The heatmaps indicate the distance of SRSA from the atrial surface. This ranges between 0 and 2 mm with the spectrum moving from red to blue. Accounting for the voids in the geometry of the left atrium (mitral valve and pulmonary vein), the percentage of number of sensors in contact is plotted as a function of distance for each of the atria. An average conformability of ~85 to 90% was observed.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary Materials

    Multilayer fabrication of durable catheter-deployable soft robotic sensor arrays for efficient left atrial mapping

    Varun Kashyap, Alexandre Caprio, Tejas Doshi, Sun-Joo Jang, Christopher F. Liu, Bobak Mosadegh, Simon Dunham

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