Research ArticleIMMUNOLOGY

PPM1G restricts innate immune signaling mediated by STING and MAVS and is hijacked by KSHV for immune evasion

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Science Advances  20 Nov 2020:
Vol. 6, no. 47, eabd0276
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abd0276

Abstract

The adaptor proteins, STING and MAVS, are components of critical pathogen-sensing pathways that induce innate immunity. Phosphorylation of either adaptor results in activation of the type I interferon pathway. How this phosphorylation is regulated and how it is manipulated by pathogens remain largely unknown. Here, we identified host protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent 1G (PPM1G) as a negative regulator of innate immune pathways and showed that this host system is hijacked by Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). Mechanistically, KSHV tegument protein ORF33 interacts with STING/MAVS and enhances recruitment of PPM1G to dephosphorylate p-STING/p-MAVS for immunosuppression. Inhibition of PPM1G expression improves the antiviral response against both DNA and RNA viruses. Collectively, our study shows that PPM1G restricts both cytosolic DNA– and RNA–sensing pathways to naturally balance the intensity of the antiviral response. Manipulation of PPM1G by KSHV provides an important strategy for immune evasion.

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