Research ArticleAPPLIED ECOLOGY

Spatial variation in biodiversity loss across China under multiple environmental stressors

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Science Advances  20 Nov 2020:
Vol. 6, no. 47, eabd0952
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abd0952
  • Fig. 1 Spatial variation in biodiversity loss.

    (A) Ratio of threatened species, encompassing IUCN Red List categories: Critically Endangered (CR), Endangered (EN), and Vulnerable (VU). Provinces with a high proportion of threatened species are mainly found in southwest China, including Tibet, Yunnan, Sichuan, Guangxi, and Guizhou provinces. (B) Correlation between total number of species and total number of threatened species. There is a significant positive correlation between the number of threatened species and richness in different provinces. (C) Distribution range of threatened species significantly reduced during 2006–2018 compared with 1901–1980.

  • Fig. 2 Climate change and human activities represented by local Geary cluster maps.

    (A) Local Geary cluster map of CO2 and NOx emissions. (B) Local Geary cluster map of eco-water, green gas emissions, and biodiversity-loss species.

  • Fig. 3 Human activities represented by local Geary cluster maps.

    (A) Local Geary cluster map of solid waste and biodiversity-loss species. (B) Local Geary cluster map of construction land and biodiversity-loss species.

  • Fig. 4 Main influencing factors of provincial biodiversity levels.

    The bracket after the province name is the number of biodiversity-loss species in that province. Positive or negative values indicate the relative deviation from the average.

  • Table 1 Multiple environmental stressors and their bivariate Moran’s I values.

    Positive or negative values of the BMI for biodiversity-loss species reflect how closely variables are correlated in space. A positive value indicates driving positive effect of a stressor on numbers of key biodiversity-loss species in the surrounding area, while a negative value indicates the corresponding adverse effect. A total of 1499 key biodiversity-loss species are found in China, and the overall population is decreasing. Refer to table S5 for the definitions and sources of these stressors. These data were collected at the provincial level and mainly cover recent years.

    Stressor
    category
    Specific
    stressor
    Bivariate
    Moran’s I
    (BMI) with
    threatened
    species
    P
    Climate factorsClimate zone0.2390.002
    Average
    precipitation
    0.2780.003
    Average
    temperature
    0.310.001
    Longitude−0.2390.003
    Latitude−0.3950.001
    Climate changeNOx emissions−0.2110.003
    CO2 emissions−0.2280.001
    Long-term
    precipitation
    change
    0.1060.051
    Long-term
    temperature
    change
    −0.1010.054
    PollutionSO2 emissions−0.1340.028
    Industrial solid
    waste
    emissions
    −0.2110.001
    Waste water
    emissions
    −0.0380.324
    Emergent
    environmental
    accidents
    −0.0460.223
    Human activitiesGross domestic
    product (GDP)
    −0.0870.094
    Electricity
    consumption
    −0.1050.053
    Nighttime
    lights
    −0.1540.007
    Cultivated land−0.1060.014
    Construction
    land
    −0.1330.029
    Natural factorsForest coverage0.2110.005
    Economic
    losses caused
    by geological
    disasters
    0.1420.027
    Soil erosion0.0420.184
    Eco-water
    supplies
    −0.2260.001
  • Table 2 The numbers of biodiversity-loss species and families in different climate zones.

    “Major family” represents a family with more species number in the relevant climate zone as shown in table S3.

    Climate zoneAverage
    precipitation
    (mm)
    Average
    temperature
    (°C)
    Main
    distribution area
    Name of the major familyCorresponding
    species number
    Percentage of
    total zone
    Tropical
    monsoon
    climate (TRMC)
    1500–2000Above 20Hainan Island,
    southern Yunnan,
    etc.
    Fabaceae67.8%
    Orchidaceae56.5%
    Theaceae56.5%
    Annonaceae45.2%
    Subtropical
    monsoon
    climate (SMC)
    1000–160014–2025°–35° north
    latitude, widely
    distributed in
    south China
    Orchidaceae11315.8%
    Theaceae375.2%
    Magnoliaceae314.3%
    Cyprinidae304.2%
    Pinaceae212.9%
    Aquifoliaceae172.4%
    Atyidae172.4%
    Berberidaceae162.2%
    Araliaceae152.1%
    Cycadaceae121.7%
    Apocynaceae111.5%
    Aristolochiaceae111.5%
    Cupressaceae111.5%
    Taxaceae111.5%
    Annonaceae101.4%
    Temperate
    monsoon
    climate (TEMC)
    400–8005–12Widely in north
    and northeast
    China
    Orchidaceae1413.2%
    Anatidae54.7%
    Pinaceae54.7%
    Plateau mountain
      climate (PMC)
    300–5001–5Mainly
    Qinghai-Tibetan
    plateau
    Orchidaceae2131.8%
    Pinaceae69.1%
    Berberidaceae46.1%
    Taxaceae46.1%
    Temperate
      continental
      climate (TCC)
    100–4003–9Northwest ChinaOrchidaceae1619.3%
    Gruidae56.0%
    Pinaceae56.0%

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