Research ArticleECOLOGY

Nano- and microplastics affect the composition of freshwater benthic communities in the long term

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Science Advances  31 Jan 2020:
Vol. 6, no. 5, eaay4054
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aay4054
  • Fig. 1 Macroinvertebrate abundance after 3 and 15 months.

    Total number of macroinvertebrates found in trays retrieved after 3 and 15 months with increasing NP (top) and MP (bottom) concentrations [as % sediment dry weight (dw)]. Error bars are means ± SE, n = 4, except for MP treatments 0.05 and 0.5% retrieved after 3 months and 0 and 5% retrieved after 15 months, where n = 3.

  • Fig. 2 Taxa abundance after 3 and 15 months.

    Total number of taxa found in trays retrieved after 3 and 15 months with increasing NP (top) and MP (bottom) concentrations (as % sediment dry weight). Error bars are means ± SE, n = 4, except for MP treatments 0.05 and 0.5% retrieved after 3 months and 0 and 5% retrieved after 15 months, where n = 3.

  • Fig. 3 Shannon diversity index after 3 and 15 months.

    Shannon diversity index in trays containing NP (top) and MP (bottom) at five concentrations (0, 0.005, 0.05, 0.5, and 5% plastic per sediment dry weight) after 3 and 15 months. Error bars are means ± SE, n = 4, except for MP treatments 0.05 and 0.5% retrieved after 3 months and 0 and 5% retrieved after 15 months, where n = 3.

  • Fig. 4 Naididae abundance after 3 and 15 months.

    Number of individuals from the family Naididae found in trays retrieved after 3 and 15 months with increasing NP (top) and MP (bottom) concentrations (as % sediment dry weight). Error bars are means ± SE, n = 4, except for MP treatments 0.05 and 0.5% retrieved after 3 months and 0 and 5% retrieved after 15 months, where n = 3.

  • Fig. 5 Measured vs. Nominal NP and MP concentrations.

    NP (top) and MP (bottom) concentrations measured in the plastic-sediment mixtures at time zero and in trays retrieved after 3 and 15 months after subtracting the %TOM in controls from the measured %TOM in trays as a function of the nominal NP concentration (top) and the nominal MP concentration (bottom) (as % sediment dry weight). For the starting concentration, average ± SD (n = 3) was based on three samples taken from the initial concentrations prepared. Values for 3 and 15 months represent the average ± SD (n = 4), which correspond to each of the four treatment replicas distributed along the ditch.

  • Table 1 Colonization ratios based on the number of individuals/m2 and based on taxa.

    Colonization ratio for number of individuals was calculated as the number of individuals/m2 found in trays retrieved after 3 months divided by the number of individuals/m2 found in the donor system at the start of the experiment. For taxa, this was performed similarly, i.e., the number of taxa in trays after 3 months divided by the number of taxa at start. Means ± SD correspond to n = 4, except for 0.05 and 0.5% (3 months), where n = 3; and transects, where n = 2.

    NPMP
    Individuals/m2TaxaIndividuals/m2Taxa
    MeanSDMeanSDMeanSDMeanSD
    04.351.140.870.113.511.030.860.12
    0.0054.191.380.820.185.141.170.880.13
    0.055.230.990.860.065.411.520.720.15
    0.54.030.960.760.094.901.270.790.02
    54.691.020.730.093.510.470.740.11

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/6/5/eaay4054/DC1

    Calculations of styrene and SDS concentrations in the experimental ditch

    Table S1. Mean abundance (±SD) per taxon in transects and NP trays.

    Table S2. Mean abundance (±SD) per taxon in transects and MP trays.

    Table S3. Reference community ratio based on the number of individuals/m2 and taxa.

    Table S4. Temperature (°C), dissolved oxygen (mg/liter), pH, and electro-conductivity (μS/cm) measured at two locations (meters 10 and 30) in the experimental ditch at the start of the experiment (0) and after 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 11, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 weeks.

    Fig. S1. Number of individuals per class after 3 and 15 months.

    Fig. S2. Valvata abundance after 3 and 15 months.

    Fig. S3. Orthocladiinae abundance after 3 and 15 months.

    Fig. S4. Hippeutis complanatus abundance after 3 and 15 months.

    Fig. S5. Gyraulus albus abundance after 3 and 15 months.

    Fig. S6. Pictures of the experimental ditch with the trays embedded in the sediment.

    Reference (40)

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Calculations of styrene and SDS concentrations in the experimental ditch
    • Table S1. Mean abundance (±SD) per taxon in transects and NP trays.
    • Table S2. Mean abundance (±SD) per taxon in transects and MP trays.
    • Table S3. Reference community ratio based on the number of individuals/m2 and taxa.
    • Table S4. Temperature (°C), dissolved oxygen (mg/liter), pH, and electro-conductivity (μS/cm) measured at two locations (meters 10 and 30) in the experimental ditch at the start of the experiment (0) and after 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 11, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 weeks.
    • Fig. S1. Number of individuals per class after 3 and 15 months.
    • Fig. S2. Valvata abundance after 3 and 15 months.
    • Fig. S3. Orthocladiinae abundance after 3 and 15 months.
    • Fig. S4. Hippeutis complanatus abundance after 3 and 15 months.
    • Fig. S5. Gyraulus albus abundance after 3 and 15 months.
    • Fig. S6. Pictures of the experimental ditch with the trays embedded in the sediment.
    • Reference (40)

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