Research ArticleCELL BIOLOGY

The chromatin remodeler ALC1 underlies resistance to PARP inhibitor treatment

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Science Advances  18 Dec 2020:
Vol. 6, no. 51, eabb8626
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abb8626

Abstract

Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors are used in the treatment of BRCA-deficient cancers, with treatments currently extending toward other homologous recombination defective tumors. In a genome-wide CRISPR knockout screen with olaparib, we identify ALC1 (Amplified in Liver Cancer 1)—a cancer-relevant poly(ADP-ribose)-regulated chromatin remodeling enzyme—as a key modulator of sensitivity to PARP inhibitor. We found that ALC1 can remove inactive PARP1 indirectly through binding to PARylated chromatin. Consequently, ALC1 deficiency enhances trapping of inhibited PARP1, which then impairs the binding of both nonhomologous end-joining and homologous recombination repair factors to DNA lesions. We also establish that ALC1 overexpression, a common feature in multiple tumor types, reduces the sensitivity of BRCA-deficient cells to PARP inhibitors. Together, we conclude that ALC1-dependent PARP1 mobilization is a key step underlying PARP inhibitor resistance.

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