Research ArticlePHYSIOLOGY

RIPK3-mediated inflammation is a conserved β cell response to ER stress

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Science Advances  18 Dec 2020:
Vol. 6, no. 51, eabd7272
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abd7272


Islet inflammation is an important etiopathology of type 2 diabetes; however, the underlying mechanisms are not well defined. Using complementary experimental models, we discovered RIPK3-dependent IL1B induction in β cells as an instigator of islet inflammation. In cultured β cells, ER stress activated RIPK3, leading to NF-kB–mediated proinflammatory gene expression. In a zebrafish muscle insulin resistance model, overnutrition caused islet inflammation, β cell dysfunction, and loss in an ER stress–, ripk3-, and il1b-dependent manner. In mouse islets, high-fat diet triggered the IL1B expression in β cells before macrophage recruitment in vivo, and RIPK3 inhibition suppressed palmitate-induced β cell dysfunction and Il1b expression in vitro. Furthermore, in human islets grafted in hyperglycemic mice, a marked increase in ER stress, RIPK3, and NF-kB activation in β cells were accompanied with murine macrophage infiltration. Thus, RIPK3-mediated induction of proinflammatory mediators is a conserved, previously unrecognized β cell response to metabolic stress and a mediator of the ensuing islet inflammation.

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