Kinematic flexibility allows bumblebees to increase energetic efficiency when carrying heavy loads

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Science Advances  05 Feb 2020:
Vol. 6, no. 6, eaay3115
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aay3115

Article Information

vol. 6 no. 6

Online ISSN: 
  • Received for publication June 7, 2019
  • Accepted for publication November 22, 2019
  • .

Author Information

  1. Stacey A. Combes1,*,,
  2. Susan F. Gagliardi1,,
  3. Callin M. Switzer2,3 and
  4. Michael E. Dillon4
  1. 1Department of Neurobiology, Physiology and Behavior, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA.
  2. 2Department of Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.
  3. 3eScience Institute, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.
  4. 4Department of Zoology and Physiology and Program in Ecology, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071, USA.
  1. *Corresponding author. Email: sacombes{at}
  • These authors contributed equally to this work.


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