Research ArticleMATERIALS SCIENCE

Transformation of oxide ceramic textiles from insulation to conduction at room temperature

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Science Advances  07 Feb 2020:
Vol. 6, no. 6, eaay8538
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aay8538
  • Fig. 1 Mechanism illustration of the reduction process.

    (A) General picture of using the room temperature domino-cascade reduction strategy to reduce TiO2 textiles. (B) Schematic diagram of the contact corrosion between Li and TiO2. (C) Snapshots of color changes of the reduced TiO2 textiles, which could be used as an electric wire to light a bulb (photo credit: Y. Zhang, Donghua University). E0, vacuum level; WM, work function of Li metal; EFM, electric fermi level of Li metal; WS, work function of TiO2; EFS, electric fermi level of TiO2; CB, conduction band; VB, valence band.

  • Fig. 2 Material characterization.

    (A and B) Captured photographs of the self-driven chemical reactions between Li and TiO2 in DMAc. (C) Cross-sectional image of a typical TiO2 film. (D) Single TiO2 NF. Surface morphology of (E) the pristine TiO2, (F) the reduced TiO2, and (G) the reduced TiO2 after being washed by HCl. Relationships between conductivity and (H) reduction time, (I) Li sizes and solvent amounts, and (J) type of solvents (photo credit: Y. Zhang, Donghua University).

  • Fig. 3 Defect characterization of the pristine and reduced TiO2.

    (A to C) High-resolution TEM of the pristine, blue, and black TiO2 NFs. (D) Dynamic XRD analysis of the TiO2 NFs from white (at 0 S) to black (at 60 S). (E to G) XPS spectra of the pristine and black TiO2. (H and I) Raman spectra of the pristine and black TiO2 NFs. a.u., arbitrary unit.

  • Fig. 4 Application prospect of the reduced TiO2.

    (A) Multifunctions of the conductive oxide ceramic textiles. (B) Large-scale production of the conductive oxide NF textiles and their potential applications as freestanding battery electrodes (photo credit: Y. Zhang, Donghua University).

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/6/6/eaay8538/DC1

    Supplementary Materials and Methods

    Fig. S1. Process of domino-cascade reduction for soft TiO2 NF textiles.

    Fig. S2. Effects of the Li+-containing DMAc and NF structures on TiO2 reduction.

    Fig. S3. Experimental verification of the domino-cascade reduction mechanism.

    Fig. S4. Verification of the effects of solvents and Li plates on TiO2 reduction.

    Fig. S5. Optical photographs of the fabricated TiO2 textiles and comparison of flexibility of the TiO2 textiles with nonwoven fabrics and tissue papers.

    Fig. S6. The cross-sectional and surface images of TiO2 NFs and the diameter histogram.

    Fig. S7. Surface area, mechanical, crystal structure, and pore size characterizations of TiO2 NFs.

    Fig. S8. Morphology and conductivity characterizations.

    Fig. S9. High-resolution TEM of the pristine, blue, and black TiO2 NFs at high magnifications, and Tauc plots of pristine and reduced TiO2 NFs.

    Fig. S10. Large-scale production of the pristine and reduced ceramic NF textiles.

    Fig. S11. Potential applications of the reduced TiO2 textiles as battery current collectors.

    Fig. S12. Surface morphology of the pristine and reduced SnO2, BTO, and LLTO textiles.

    Fig. S13. XPS and XRD spectra of the pristine and reduced SnO2, BTO, and LLTO.

    Table S1. Comparison of electrode potentials of Li, K, Na, Mg, Zn, Ti, and Sn.

    Movie S1. The processes of using the room temperature Li reduction strategy to reduce TiO2 textiles.

    Movie S2. The processes of using the room temperature Li reduction strategy to reduce LLTO textiles.

  • Supplementary Materials

    The PDFset includes:

    • Supplementary Materials and Methods
    • Fig. S1. Process of domino-cascade reduction for soft TiO2 NF textiles.
    • Fig. S2. Effects of the Li+-containing DMAc and NF structures on TiO2 reduction.
    • Fig. S3. Experimental verification of the domino-cascade reduction mechanism.
    • Fig. S4. Verification of the effects of solvents and Li plates on TiO2 reduction.
    • Fig. S5. Optical photographs of the fabricated TiO2 textiles and comparison of flexibility of the TiO2 textiles with nonwoven fabrics and tissue papers.
    • Fig. S6. The cross-sectional and surface images of TiO2 NFs and the diameter histogram.
    • Fig. S7. Surface area, mechanical, crystal structure, and pore size characterizations of TiO2 NFs.
    • Fig. S8. Morphology and conductivity characterizations.
    • Fig. S9. High-resolution TEM of the pristine, blue, and black TiO2 NFs at high magnifications, and Tauc plots of pristine and reduced TiO2 NFs.
    • Fig. S10. Large-scale production of the pristine and reduced ceramic NF textiles.
    • Fig. S11. Potential applications of the reduced TiO2 textiles as battery current collectors.
    • Fig. S12. Surface morphology of the pristine and reduced SnO2, BTO, and LLTO textiles.
    • Fig. S13. XPS and XRD spectra of the pristine and reduced SnO2, BTO, and LLTO.
    • Table S1. Comparison of electrode potentials of Li, K, Na, Mg, Zn, Ti, and Sn.
    • Legends for movies S1 and S2

    Download PDF

    Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

    • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). The processes of using the room temperature Li reduction strategy to reduce TiO2 textiles.
    • Movie S2 (.mp4 format). The processes of using the room temperature Li reduction strategy to reduce LLTO textiles.

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