Research ArticleECOLOGY

Invisible oil beyond the Deepwater Horizon satellite footprint

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Science Advances  12 Feb 2020:
Vol. 6, no. 7, eaaw8863
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aaw8863
  • Fig. 1 Toxicity and visibility thresholds from in situ and areal/satellite observations.

    (A and B) The relationship between TPH and PAH concentrations from the GSD for surface waters (depth, 0 to 1 m; linear regression P < 0.001, R2 = 0.9, n = 34; black line). The blue line represents the regression of the same dataset after removing the five influential points with the highest concentrations (linear regression P < 0.01, R2 = 0.2, n = 29). Green points represent background and naturally slick-dispersed water samples from (24) (linear regression P < 0.01, R2 = 0.21, n = 33, green line). (C) The relationship between TPH and PAH concentrations from the GSD for deeper waters (depth, >1 m; linear regression P < 0.001, R2 = 0.3, n = 641; gray line). (D) The area of the NESDIS anomaly footprint across time (days from blowout). The green line represents the NESDIS anomaly decay (linear regression P < 0.001, R2 = 0.63, n = 22) from day 87 when the spill was stopped (blue vertical line) and onward, until NESDIS signal disappeared (orange vertical line). (E) PAH concentrations at the surface (depth, 0 to 1 m) from the GSD. In (A) to (C) and (E), the red lines represent the toxic-to-biota threshold of PAH = 0.5 ppb for the surface (depth, 0 to 1 m), and PAH = 1 ppb for the water column (depth, >1 m). Dashed magenta lines in (A, B, and E) represent the NESDIS detection threshold in terms of PAH and TPH concentrations. (F) Toxic (red/dark), above-background (green/bright), and below-background (blue/smaller markers) GSD in situ PAH water samples across depth and time. PAH and TPH data were log10(x + 1)-transformed in (A) to (C), (E), and (F).

  • Fig. 2 Spatial DWH cumulative extents.

    (A) Cumulative NESDIS anomaly daily composites integrated from 20 April 2010 to 21 July 2010. Daily fishing closures are marked with gray lines; the cumulative fishing closure area is marked with a thick dashed yellow line. The black star represents the location of the DWH blowout [adapted by permission from Springer-Nature: Scenarios and Responses to Future Deep Oil Spills: Fighting the Next War by S. Murawski, C. Ainsworth, S. Gilbert, D. Hollander, C. Paris, M. Schlüter, D. Wetzel, Eds., 2019 (18)]. (B) Cumulative value of daily average oil concentrations (ppb), integrated across the same time span as (A) and across water depths. Vertical depth layers are 0 to 1 m, 1 to 20 m, and in 20-m increments down to 2500 m. Sediment and water samples with higher-than-background concentration are marked in bright green and dark blue circles, respectively [adapted by permission from Springer-Nature: Scenarios and Responses to Future Deep Oil Spills: Fighting the Next War by S. Murawski, C. Ainsworth, S. Gilbert, D. Hollander, C. Paris, M. Schlüter, D. Wetzel, Eds., 2019 (18)]. Red crosses in (B) represent approximate locations of DWH-related oil detections reported in previous studies: (i) (9), (ii) (7), (iii) (12), (iv) (13), and (v) (15). Daily fishery closures are marked with black polygons; the cumulative fishery closure area is marked with a dashed thick polygon. AB, Apalachee Bay; DP, Deep Plume; EFS, East Florida Shelf; FK, Florida Keys; LC, Loop Current System; TXS, Texas Shores; WFS, West Florida Shelf. (C) Categorization of the modeled oil spill are as follows: (i) nontoxic, PAH concentrations above background level and smaller than 0.5 and 1 ppb at the surface (depth, 0 to 1 m) and in the water column (depth, >1 m), respectively; (ii) toxic-to-biota and invisible, PAH concentrations 0.5 to 17 ppb at the surface and above 1 ppb in the water column; and (iii) toxic and visible, PAH concentrations above 17 ppb. In (C), categories were computed according to maximal concentrations across time. (D) Duration of toxic concentrations across the domain. (E) LC50 of 12 experiments examining the photoinduced toxicity to blue crab (31), fiddler crab (33), mahi mahi (29, 30), red drum (32), and speckled sea trout (32) (for more details, see table S2). (F) The spatial extent of the toxic concentrations from (E); color codes in (F) are according to bar colors in (E), representing concentrations exceeding LC50. In (F), toxic PAH of 0.5 ppb was concentrations were considered for surface waters only (depth, 0 to 1 m).

  • Fig. 3 Spatiotemporal dynamics of the spill.

    (A) Mass, (B) area of total oil spill, (C) area of oil with toxic concentrations, and (D) area of NESDIS anomaly footprint, captured by the fishery closures (magenta) with respect to the total (black) present in the domain across 93 days from blowout. The NESDIS anomaly footprint and oil-CMS oil concentrations partitioned to visible and toxic to biota, invisible and toxic to biota, and invisible and nontoxic for 15 May 2010 (E to G), 6 to 18 June 2010 (H to J), and 2 July 2010 (K to M). In (F), (I), and (L), the color bar represents cumulative oil concentrations across time and depth. Sediment and water samples from the GSD in (F), (I), and (L) are marked in light green and dark blue circles, respectively, with light red outlines representing samples with higher-than-background concentrations. Toxicity was considered for the surface (depth, 0 to 1 m; PAH > 0.5 ppb) and for the water column (depth, >1 m; PAH > 1 ppb). (A), (B), (D), (F), (I), and (L) are adapted by permission from Springer-Nature: Scenarios and Responses to Future Deep Oil Spills: Fighting the Next War by S. Murawski, C. Ainsworth, S. Gilbert, D. Hollander, C. Paris, M. Schlüter, D. Wetzel, Eds., 2019 (18).

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/6/7/eaaw8863/DC1

    Section S1. Comparing oil-CMS outputs of three possible DSDs

    Section S2. The effectiveness of the seafood sampling scheme in determining the absence of contaminated seafood

    Fig. S1. Spatial representation of the satellite footprint and relevant regions in the domain.

    Fig. S2. Cumulative mass (in kilograms) across time and space.

    Fig. S3. In situ water and sediment PAH concentrations from BP GSD (26, 27) and NOAA DIVER (47) data bases.

    Fig. S4. Oil spill extents under different DSDs.

    Fig. S5. Contaminated area in which seafood was monitored but was not closed for fishing.

    Table S1. The chemical components of PAH50 from the GSD.

    Table S2. List of photoinduced experiments used for the spatial analysis for the following organisms: mahi mahi (C. hippurus), blue crab (C. sapidus), red drum (S. ocellatus), speckled sea trout (C. nebulosus), and fiddler crab (U. longisignalis).

    Movie S1. Daily oil spill extents from the oil-CMS transport model.

    Movie S2. Oil spill extents under different DSDs.

    Data file S1. R code S1.

    Data file S2. DataPAH_TPH_surface.csv.

    Data file S3. DataFrom_Bejerano_et_al_2013.csv.

    Data file S4. DataPAH_TPH_water_column.csv.

    Data file S5. SatSignalDecay.csv.

    Data file S6. DataPAH_167d.csv.

    References (6164)

  • Supplementary Materials

    The PDF file includes:

    • Section S1. Comparing oil-CMS outputs of three possible DSDs
    • Section S2. The effectiveness of the seafood sampling scheme in determining the absence of contaminated seafood
    • Fig. S1. Spatial representation of the satellite footprint and relevant regions in the domain.
    • Fig. S2. Cumulative mass (in kilograms) across time and space.
    • Fig. S3. In situ water and sediment PAH concentrations from BP GSD (26, 27) and NOAA DIVER (47) data bases.
    • Fig. S4. Oil spill extents under different DSDs.
    • Fig. S5. Contaminated area in which seafood was monitored but was not closed for fishing.
    • Table S1. The chemical components of PAH50 from the GSD.
    • Table S2. List of photoinduced experiments used for the spatial analysis for the following organisms: mahi mahi (C. hippurus), blue crab (C. sapidus), red drum (S. ocellatus), speckled sea trout (C. nebulosus), and fiddler crab (U. longisignalis).
    • Legends for movies S1 and S2
    • Legends for data files S1 to S6
    • References (6164)

    Download PDF

    Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

    • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). Daily oil spill extents from the oil-CMS transport model.
    • Movie S2 (.mp4 format). Oil spill extents under different DSDs.
    • Data file S1 (.R format). R code S1.
    • Data file S2 (.csv format). DataPAH_TPH_surface.csv.
    • Data file S3 (.csv format). DataFrom_Bejerano_et_al_2013.csv.
    • Data file S4 (.csv format). DataPAH_TPH_water_column.csv.
    • Data file S5 (.csv format). SatSignalDecay.csv.
    • Data file S6 (.csv format). DataPAH_167d.csv.

    Files in this Data Supplement:

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