Real-time frequency-encoded spatiotemporal focusing through scattering media using a programmable 2D ultrafine optical frequency comb

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Science Advances  19 Feb 2020:
Vol. 6, no. 8, eaay1192
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aay1192


Optical wavefront shaping is a powerful tool for controlling photons in strongly scattering media. Its speed, however, has been the bottleneck for in vivo applications. Moreover, unlike spatial focusing, temporal focusing from a continuous-wave source has rarely been exploited yet is highly desired for nonlinear photonics. Here, we present a novel real-time frequency-encoded spatiotemporal (FEST) focusing technology. FEST focusing uses a novel programmable two-dimensional optical frequency comb with an ultrafine linewidth to perform single-shot wavefront measurements, with a fast single-pixel detector. This technique enables simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing at microsecond scales through thick dynamic scattering media. This technology also enabled us to discover the large-scale temporal shift, a new phenomenon that, with the conventional spatial memory effect, establishes a space-time duality. FEST focusing opens a new avenue for high-speed wavefront shaping in the field of photonics.

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