Research ArticleSOCIAL SCIENCES

High rate of extrapair paternity in a human population demonstrates diversity in human reproductive strategies

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Science Advances  19 Feb 2020:
Vol. 6, no. 8, eaay6195
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aay6195
  • Fig. 1 Percentage of married men and women with at least one concurrent partner, grouped by age.

  • Fig. 2 Posterior distribution of the EPP rate after clustering by mother and mother-husband dyad.

    The posterior distribution EPP rate is plotted in red, against both the prior (dashed) and the naïve posterior rate from ignoring clustering by mothers and mother-father dyads (black). Faded curves are estimates without accounting for false-positive paternity.

  • Fig. 3 Percentage of correct paternity assertions by men and women.

    False positives are cases where the child was stated to be the biological offspring of the husband when he/she was not, and false negatives are where the child was claimed not to be the biological offspring of the husband when he/she was.

  • Table 1 Sample characteristics.

    Sample characteristics..

    WomenSocial father
    N in sample8747
    Age: mean (min, max)49 (16, 83)58 (30, 99)
    Parity*: mean (min, max)6.6 (1, 12)9.1 (1, 29)
    Number of marriages: mean1.73.7
    % Currently married7398

    *Parity for men refers to the number of purported children, not actual paternity.

    Supplementary Materials

    • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/6/8/eaay6195/DC1

      Supplementary Materials and Methods

      Fig. S1. Density plot of EPP Perception Task.

      Fig. S2. Comparison of age for men in our paternity sample (n = 47) with those not living in Omuhonga but not included in our sample (n = 68).

      Fig. S3. Comparison of age for women in our paternity sample (n = 59) with those not living in Omuhonga but not included in our sample (n = 129).

      Fig. S4. Comparison of parity for women in our paternity sample (n = 59) with those not living in Omuhonga but not included in our sample (n = 129).

      Fig. S5. Frequency distribution showing number of children in the sample, by mother.

      Fig. S6. Frequency distribution showing number of children in the sample, by social father.

      Fig. S7. Number of sampled children, by mother’s age.

      Fig. S8. Trace plots (top) and rank histograms (bottom) for model clustering mother and mother-husband dyad.

      Fig. S9. Flowchart of DNA sample quality control, beginning with total number of population samples and the final number of samples available for paternity analysis.

    • Supplementary Materials

      This PDF file includes:

      • Supplementary Materials and Methods
      • Fig. S1. Density plot of EPP Perception Task.
      • Fig. S2. Comparison of age for men in our paternity sample (n = 47) with those not living in Omuhonga but not included in our sample (n = 68).
      • Fig. S3. Comparison of age for women in our paternity sample (n = 59) with those not living in Omuhonga but not included in our sample (n = 129).
      • Fig. S4. Comparison of parity for women in our paternity sample (n = 59) with those not living in Omuhonga but not included in our sample (n = 129).
      • Fig. S5. Frequency distribution showing number of children in the sample, by mother.
      • Fig. S6. Frequency distribution showing number of children in the sample, by social father.
      • Fig. S7. Number of sampled children, by mother’s age.
      • Fig. S8. Trace plots (top) and rank histograms (bottom) for model clustering mother and mother-husband dyad.
      • Fig. S9. Flowchart of DNA sample quality control, beginning with total number of population samples and the final number of samples available for paternity analysis.

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