Research ArticleAPPLIED ECOLOGY

Global political responsibility for the conservation of albatrosses and large petrels

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Science Advances  03 Mar 2021:
Vol. 7, no. 10, eabd7225
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abd7225
  • Fig. 1 Standalone importance of countries and the high seas for albatrosses and large petrels.

    (A and B) Species richness within national jurisdictions and the high seas. For each political area, richness is divided into three categories: species that breed in the country (“Breeding”), species that visit the area but do not breed (“Visiting”), and species that both breed locally and visit from elsewhere (“Both”). (A) Top 15 areas in terms of total species richness. (B) Species richness of countries that host breeding populations, ordered by breeding richness. (C) Most important areas in terms of annual time spent, an index of abundance, by adult albatrosses and large petrels split into visiting and breeding bird components. Areas shown host more than 0.1% of annual time spent, with all others summed into the category “Other.” National jurisdictions refer to the aggregated EEZs (up to 200 nautical miles from shore) of each country, and high seas refers to all areas beyond national jurisdiction.

  • Fig. 2 Tracking data and year-round distributions of albatrosses and large petrels.

    (A) Study sites (open red boxes) and the number of daily positions derived from tracked birds. (B) Species richness of adult birds in a breeding year. (C) Time spent during a breeding year. Cells indicate the total amount of time spent by the global breeding population of albatrosses and large petrels in a year. Gray lines at sea represent borders of national EEZs.

  • Fig. 3 The most important geopolitical connections for albatrosses and large petrels.

    Connections are between breeding-origin countries (yellow dots) and visited national jurisdictions or high seas areas (purple dots), with dot size respectively representing the breeding and visiting richness in each and the link width signifying the strength of the connection. Connection strength is quantified as the percentage of annual time spent in the visited area, summed across the species making the connection. Annual time spent is calculated for each breeding population and weighted by the size of the population relative to global total of each species. (A) Top five connections between each breeding-origin country and the other areas visited throughout the annual cycle. (B) Top three connections between breeding-origin countries and the areas of competence of RFMOs in the high seas. Colored boxes represent the ocean basin in which most of the jurisdictional waters of each country or RFMO are located. RFMO abbreviations correspond to the following (left to right): Indian Ocean Tuna Commission, Southern Indian Ocean Fisheries Agreement, South Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Organisation, Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission, Convention on the Conservation and Management of Pollock Resources in the Central Bering Sea, Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission, North Pacific Anadromous Fish Commission, North Pacific Fisheries Commission, International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas, Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization, North Atlantic Salmon Conservation Organisation, North East Atlantic Fisheries Commission, South East Atlantic Fisheries Organisation, and Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Living Marine Resources.

  • Table 1 Tracking data coverage of the global breeding population and annual cycle of 39 species of albatrosses and large petrels.

    Nspecies” is the estimated size (individuals) of the global breeding population. “nsites” is the number of breeding populations tracked per species. “nbirds” is the number of unique birds tracked. “% Species pop.” is the percentage of the global breeding population made up by the sites tracked herein. “% Species year known” is the percentage of the annual cycle of the global breeding population estimated by our tracking data. “% Species year unknown” is the percentage of the annual cycle not estimated by our tracking data (i.e., months or populations without tracking data).

    Common nameScientific nameNspeciesnsitesnbirds% Species pop.% Species year
    known
    % Species year
    unknown
    Amsterdam
    albatross
    Diomedea
    amsterdamensis
    901741001000
    Antipodean
    albatross
    Diomedea
    antipodensis
    14,86422111001000
    Tristan albatrossDiomedea
    dabbenena
    2,2181521001000
    Wandering
    albatross
    Diomedea exulans18,56859771001000
    Northern royal
    albatross
    Diomedea sanfordi10,270275100928
    Short-tailed
    albatross
    Phoebastria
    albatrus
    2,600132785248
    Laysan albatrossPhoebastria
    immutabilis
    1,333,31612081001000
    Waved albatrossPhoebastria
    irrorata
    16,9421541004258
    Black-footed
    albatross
    Phoebastria
    nigripes
    140,072116096964
    Sooty albatrossPhoebetria fusca24,19241211001000
    Light-mantled
    albatross
    Phoebetria
    palpebrata
    41,046573655842
    Buller’s albatrossThalassarche
    bulleri
    65,4021115444456
    Indian yellow-
    nosed albatross
    Thalassarche
    carteri
    64,4142184876337
    Shy albatrossThalassarche
    cauta
    29,36811431008317
    Atlantic yellow-
    nosed albatross
    Thalassarche
    chlororhynchos
    67,300145100928
    Gray-headed
    albatross
    Thalassarche
    chrysostoma
    165,8545232855743
    Chatham albatrossThalassarche
    eremita
    10,592150100928
    Campbell albatrossThalassarche
    impavida
    43,296181100928
    Black-browed
    albatross
    Thalassarche
    melanophris
    1,374,8905803888614
    Salvin’s albatrossThalassarche
    salvini
    82,4261223397
    White-capped
    albatross
    Thalassarche
    steadi
    191,8341381001000
    Buller’s shearwaterArdenna bulleri700,000181001000
    Flesh-footed
    shearwater
    Ardenna carneipes148,000291484159
    Pink-footed
    shearwater
    Ardenna creatopus67,0401102100928
    Great shearwaterArdenna gravis5,000,0001721001000
    Sooty shearwaterArdenna grisea20,000,000254464555
    Wedge-tailed
    shearwater
    Ardenna pacifica5,200,000456584951
    Short-tailed
    shearwater
    Ardenna
    tenuirostris
    23,000,000116787228
    Cory’s shearwaterCalonectris
    borealis
    423,6724514989010
    Scopoli’s
    shearwater
    Calonectris
    diomedea
    327,2504228958020
    Cape Verde
    shearwater
    Calonectris
    edwardsii
    26,2281191008317
    Streaked
    shearwater
    Calonectris
    leucomelas
    3,000,0002104595446
    Southern giant
    petrel
    Macronectes
    giganteus
    95,4065243251981
    Northern giant
    petrel
    Macronectes
    halli
    21,3825227815941
    White-chinned
    petrel
    Procellaria
    aequinoctialis
    2,405,1364133806832
    Gray petrelProcellaria cinerea151,132461988911
    Spectacled petrelProcellaria
    conspicillata
    28,800181005050
    Black petrelProcellaria
    parkinsoni
    3,000161100928
    Westland petrelProcellaria
    westlandica
    5,654128100928
    64,302,25487577584.975.025.0

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary Materials

    Global political responsibility for the conservation of albatrosses and large petrels

    Martin Beal, Maria P. Dias, Richard A. Phillips, Steffen Oppel, Carolina Hazin, Elizabeth J. Pearmain, Josh Adams, David J. Anderson, Michelle Antolos, Javier A. Arata, José Manuel Arcpos, John P. Y. Arnould, Jill Awkerman, Elizabeth Bell, Mike Bell, Mark Carey, Ryan Carle, Thomas A. Clay, Jaimie Cleeland, Valentina Colodro, Melinda Conners, Marta Cruz-Flores, Richard Cuthbert, Karine Delord, Lorna Deppe, Ben J. Dilley, Herculano Dinis, Graeme Elliott, Fernanda De Felipe, Jonathan Felis, Manuela G. Forero, Amanda Freeman, Akira Fukuda, Jacob González-Solís, José Pedro Granadeiro, April Hedd, Peter Hodum, José Manuel Igual, Audrey Jaeger, Todd J. Landers, Matthieu Le Corre, Azwianewi Makhado, Benjamin Metzger, Teresa Militão, William A. Montevecchi, Virginia Morera-Pujol, Leia Navarro-Herrero, Deon Nel, David Nicholls, Daniel Oro, Ridha Ouni, Kiyoaki Ozaki, Flavio Quintana, Raül Ramos, Tim Reid, José Manuel Reyes-González, Christopher Robertson, Graham Robertson, Mohamed Salah Romdhane, Peter G. Ryan, Paul Sagar, Fumio Sato, Stefan Schoombie, R. Paul Scofield, Scott A. Shaffer, Nirmal Jivan Shah, Kim L. Stevens, Christopher Surman, Robert M. Suryan, Akinori Takahashi, Vikash Tatayah, Graeme Taylor, David R. Thompson, Leigh Torres, Kath Walker, Ross Wanless, Susan M. Waugh, Henri Weimerskirch, Takashi Yamamoto, Zuzana Zajkova, Laura Zango, Paulo Catry

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