Research ArticleAPPLIED SCIENCES AND ENGINEERING

Neonatal wearable device for colorimetry-based real-time detection of jaundice with simultaneous sensing of vitals

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Science Advances  03 Mar 2021:
Vol. 7, no. 10, eabe3793
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abe3793
  • Fig. 1 Conceptual schematic of wearable bilirubinometer.

    (A) Neonatal jaundice is caused by bilirubin that is generated by the breakdown of hemoglobin in red blood cells. (B) The stand-alone bilirubinometer is placed on a neonate’s forehead. The device is packaged in soft silicone rubber. The bilirubin levels of neonates are measured on the basis of the ratio of absorbances of blue and green lights. The SpO2 and HR are measured using standard pulse oximeter techniques. The data are transferred to a smartphone or a PC via a Bluetooth connection.

  • Fig. 2 Structure of the actual wearable bilirubinometer.

    (A) All electronic components are mounted on a flexible substrate. Coin cells are used to serve as the battery. LEDs and PDs are surrounded by a blacked PDMS and Ecoflex mixture. The flexible PDMS lens is formed on the LEDs. The package is made of three-dimensionally (3D) printed flexible silicone. ICs, integrated circuits. (B) Photograph of the actual device, sensing part that contacts neonate’s forehead, and a circuit that conducts the control and processing tasks. Photo credit: Go Inamori, Yokohama National University. (C) Cross-sectional schematics of sensing mechanism and contact of the device. (D) Photograph of the device on a neonate. Photo credit: Ota Hiroki, Yokohama National University.

  • Fig. 3 System diagram of the device.

    (A) Block diagram of the device. The LEDs are controlled by the MCU. Signals are amplified by the amplifier and converted to a digital form by the ADC. The data are transferred to a smartphone. The low-dropout (LDO) stabilizes the voltage of the coin cells. (B) Green, blue, red, and IR LEDs emit for 4 ms. The switching of the emission is controlled by MCU. Signals are detected by the PDs and analyzed to measure SpO2, HR, and bilirubin.

  • Fig. 4 HR and SpO2 measurements.

    (A) Variations of voltage values detected in PDs by the reflected red and IR lights. Pulse wave was observed by the red and IR lights. (B) Measurements of HR and SpO2 conducted by the developed and commercial devices before, during, and after holding the breath for 1 min in adults. SpO2 decreased considerably 60 s after the onset of breathholding. (C) HR and SpO2 measurements in a neonate.

  • Fig. 5 Bilirubin measurements using the developed device.

    (A) Relationship between the wearable device and the conventional transcutaneous bilirubinometer in 50 neonates. The correlation coefficient of the data obtained by the meters was 0.81. (B) A Bland-Altman plot of the wearable device and the commercial transcutaneous bilirubinometer. MD = 0 and 2SD = 4.6. (C) Simultaneous measurement of HR, SpO2, and bilirubin concentration using the developed device. (D) Schematic of condition of neonates during phototherapy. Neonates were exposed to blue light for the therapy from the top and bottom according to a patient’s severity level. (E and F) Bilirubin measurements using the developed device and blood test during phototherapy following blue light exposure from the top (anteriorly) (D) and the bottom (posteriorly) (E). TcB by the developed device matched TSB.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary Materials

    Neonatal wearable device for colorimetry-based real-time detection of jaundice with simultaneous sensing of vitals

    Go Inamori, Umihiro Kamoto, Fumika Nakamura, Yutaka Isoda, Azusa Uozumi, Ryosuke Matsuda, Masaki Shimamura, Yusuke Okubo, Shuichi Ito, Hiroki Ota

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