Iodine reduction for reproducible and high-performance perovskite solar cells and modules

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Science Advances  03 Mar 2021:
Vol. 7, no. 10, eabe8130
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abe8130


Perovskite-based electronic materials and devices such as perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have notoriously bad reproducibility, which greatly impedes both fundamental understanding of their intrinsic properties and real-world applications. Here, we report that organic iodide perovskite precursors can be oxidized to I2 even for carefully sealed precursor powders or solutions, which markedly deteriorates the performance and reproducibility of PSCs. Adding benzylhydrazine hydrochloride (BHC) as a reductant into degraded precursor solutions can effectively reduce the detrimental I2 back to I, accompanied by a substantial reduction of I3-induced charge traps in the films. BHC residuals in perovskite films further stabilize the PSCs under operation conditions. BHC improves the stabilized efficiency of the blade-coated p-i-n structure PSCs to a record value of 23.2% (22.62 ± 0.40% certified by National Renewable Energy Laboratory), and the high-efficiency devices have a very high yield. A stabilized aperture efficiency of 18.2% is also achieved on a 35.8-cm2 mini-module.

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