Research ArticleIMMUNOLOGY

M-CSF, IL-6, and TGF-β promote generation of a new subset of tissue repair macrophage for traumatic brain injury recovery

See allHide authors and affiliations

Science Advances  12 Mar 2021:
Vol. 7, no. 11, eabb6260
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abb6260

Abstract

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to high mortality rate. We aimed to identify the key cytokines favoring TBI repair and found that patients with TBI with a better outcome robustly increased concentrations of macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interleukin-6, and transforming growth factor–β (termed M6T) in cerebrospinal fluid or plasma. Using TBI mice, we identified that M2-like macrophage, microglia, and endothelial cell were major sources to produce M6T. Together with the in vivo tracking of mCherry+ macrophages in zebrafish models, we confirmed that M6T treatment accelerated blood-borne macrophage infiltration and polarization toward a subset of tissue repair macrophages that expressed similar genes as microglia for neuroprotection, angiogenesis and cell migration. M6T therapy in TBI mice and zebrafish improved neurological function while blocking M6T-exacerbated brain injury. Considering low concentrations of M6T in some patients with poor prognostic, M6T treatment might repair TBI via generating a previously unidentified subset of tissue repair macrophages.

https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, so long as the resultant use is not for commercial advantage and provided the original work is properly cited.

View Full Text

Stay Connected to Science Advances