Mutual anticipation can contribute to self-organization in human crowds

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Science Advances  17 Mar 2021:
Vol. 7, no. 12, eabe7758
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abe7758
  • Fig. 1 Bidirectional flow experiments with distracted pedestrians.

    (A) Snapshot from an experiment under the front condition (the distracted pedestrians located in the front of a group), where locations of the distracted pedestrians are marked by blue circles. (B) Representative examples of reconstructed pedestrian trajectories under (i) front, (ii) middle, (iii) rear, and (iv) baseline conditions. Yellow (red) lines represent pedestrians moving from left (right) to right (left). Photo credit: Hisashi Murakami, Kyoto Institute of Technology; The University of Tokyo.

  • Fig. 2 Walking speed and onset of lane formation.

    (A) Pedestrians’ walking speeds under each condition. Each data point represents a pedestrian. (B) Onset of lane formation under each condition. Each data point represents a trial. Asterisks indicate the statistical significance (***P < 0.001; *P < 0.05; ns, P > 0.05). Box-and-whisker plots represent the median of the data (central thick line), data between the first and third quartiles (box), data within 1.5× the interquartile range of the median (whiskers), and outliers (unfilled circles). BL, baseline condition.

  • Fig. 3 Suddenness of turns and turn intensity.

    (A) Suddenness of turns, calculated as the absolute value of the product of angular deviation and change in speed. (B) Turn intensity, calculated as the product of step length and angle. Error bars are 95% confidence intervals. When compared to the baseline, the values in the other groups are larger, suggesting that pedestrians under the baseline condition did not perform sudden large steps, but members of the other groups were forced to perform them.

  • Fig. 4 Results of additional experiments with slow-walking pedestrians.

    (A) Walking speed. (B) Onset of lane formation. Asterisks indicate the statistical significance (***P < 0.001; ns, P > 0.05) of differences between the baseline condition and each of the other conditions. See Fig. 2 for a description of the box-and-whisker plots.

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