Cues conditioned to withdrawal and negative reinforcement: Neglected but key motivational elements driving opioid addiction

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Science Advances  07 Apr 2021:
Vol. 7, no. 15, eabf0364
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abf0364

Article Information

vol. 7 no. 15

Online ISSN: 
  • Received for publication September 29, 2020
  • Accepted for publication February 19, 2021
  • .

Author Information

  1. Caroline B. Pantazis1,*,
  2. Luis A. Gonzalez1,2,
  3. Brendan J. Tunstall3,
  4. Stephanie A. Carmack4,
  5. George F. Koob1 and
  6. Leandro F. Vendruscolo1,*
  1. 1Integrative Neuroscience Research Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Intramural Research Program, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.
  2. 2Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Krieger School of Arts and Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.
  3. 3Department of Pharmacology, Addiction Science, and Toxicology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USA.
  4. 4Center for Adaptive Systems of Brain-Body Interactions, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA.
  1. *Corresponding author. Email: caroline.pantazis{at} (C.B.P.); leandro.vendruscolo{at} (L.F.V.)


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