Research ArticleAPPLIED PHYSICS

Ultrafast pulse shaping modulates perceived visual brightness in living animals

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Science Advances  28 Apr 2021:
Vol. 7, no. 18, eabe1911
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abe1911
  • Fig. 1 Experimental setup and sketch of the energy surface of rhodopsin.

    (Top) Experimental setup: NOPA, noncollinear optical parametric amplifier; ADC, analog-to-digital converter. For the chirp dependence experiment, the near-infrared (NIR) pulse is blocked, and only the green laser pulse illuminates the eye of the mouse. For the two-color experiment, both pulses are used with the 535 nm compressed to near-zero chirp. (Bottom) Sketch of the energy surface of the rhodopsin as a function of the isomerization coordinate. The rhodopsin is promoted from the cis ground to the cis excited-state. The wave packet evolves through the conical intersection and can be either dumped by stimulated emission from the cis excited-state to the cis ground state or re-excited by absorption from the trans ground state to the trans excited-state.

  • Fig. 2 Two-color pump-dump and pump-repump of retina response in living mice.

    (A) Measured normalized A-wave amplitude at different delays. Positive delays refer to green pulse preceding NIR pulse. The P value associated with this measurement is 0.04. The shaded area represents the SEM. (B) Quantum dynamics simulations of the two-color pump-dump/repump experiment. The shaded region represents the SD of the mean of the all-trans ground population calculated in the time span defined from the end of the dump pulse to 4 ps. (C to F) State populations as a function of delay. Populations of the cis excited (C), trans excited (D), cis ground (E), and trans ground (F) states as functions of time. a.u., arbitrary units.

  • Fig. 3 Modulation of the perceived visual brightness by pulse shaping.

    (A) Measured spectrum (black) and phase (red) functions associated with the −2800, 300, and +3100 fs2/rad pulses. (B) Measured normalized A-wave amplitude extracted from the ERG signal for five values of the pulse chirp (with φ″ = −2800, −1400, 300, +1300, and +3100 fs2/rad), modulating the ordering and delays of the frequencies in the pulse (linear chirp) and for two pulse energies (0.3 and 3 nJ). For the high-energy measurements, the P value calculated between the shortest pulse and the other conditions is always below 10−10. For the low-energy measurements, the P value between the shortest pulse and the other conditions is always below 0.06, except for the point +408 fs (P = 0.19). Error bars represents the SEMs. (C) The average all-trans photoproduct yield as a function of chirp for higher (red) and lower (blue) intensities. The shaded region represents the SD of the mean of the all-trans ground population calculated in the time span defined from the end of the probe pulse to 4 ps.

  • Table 1 Details of the MCTDH simulation setup.

    Type of DVR, range (in a.u.), and number (N) of primitive grid points used for each vibrational coordinate. The number of single-particle functions (n) corresponding to the vibrational modes is given in the rightmost column. HO stands for harmonic oscillator–type DVR, and FFT stands for fast Fourier transform–type DVR. DOFs stands for degrees of freedom.

    DOFsDVRRangeNn
    Backbone elongationHO[−8.0 to 8.0]8130
    TorsionFFT[−π/2 to 3π/2]25630

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary Materials

    Ultrafast pulse shaping modulates perceived visual brightness in living animals

    Geoffrey Gaulier, Quentin Dietschi, Swarnendu Bhattacharyya, Cédric Schmidt, Matteo Montagnese, Adrien Chauvet, Sylvain Hermelin, Florence Chiodini, Luigi Bonacina, Pedro L. Herrera, Ursula Rothlisberger, Ivan Rodriguez, Jean-Pierre Wolf

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