Research ArticleENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES

The mid-Miocene Zhangpu biota reveals an outstandingly rich rainforest biome in East Asia

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Science Advances  30 Apr 2021:
Vol. 7, no. 18, eabg0625
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abg0625
  • Fig. 1 Locality map and stratigraphy of the study area.

    (A) Distribution map of modern wild Dipterocarpus trees forest (green color) (39), Fujian Province in southeastern China (yellow color) and fossil site (red circle). (B) The Fotan Group stratigraphic section showing biostratigraphy and geochronologic ages. BL, basaltic layers; SL, sedimentary layers. Two fossil layers indicated by red arrowheads both yield abundant amber and compression/impression fossils.

  • Fig. 2 CLAMP plots showing the position of the middle Miocene Zhangpu flora in PhysgAsia2 calibration space.

    (A) Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) plot of axes 1 versus 2. (B) CCA plot of axes 1 versus 3. (C) CCA plot showing axes 2 versus 3. CCA plots showing the relationship between the Zhangpu flora (red filled circle) and modern vegetation in different climate regimes. Modern climate regimes include East Asia Monsoon (green open squares), South Asia Monsoon (brown filled squares), nonmonsoonal climates (blue crosses), and the North American Monsoon (yellow triangles). The Zhangpu flora lies within the East Asia monsoonal vegetation but very close to the South Asia monsoonal vegetation in all three dimensions, with the closest modern sites from Khorat (central Thailand), Madhya Pradesh (central India), and the Ganges Delta.

  • Fig. 3 Representative inclusions in Zhangpu amber.

    (A) Feather. (B) Moss (Bryophyta: Anomodontaceae: Haplohymenium). (C) Flower (Fagales: Fagaceae). (D) Pseudoscorpion (Pseudoscorpiones). (E) Pill woodlouse (Isopoda). (F) Water mite (Acari: Hydrachnidia). (G) Springtail swarm (Collembola: Hypogastruridae: Ceratophysella). (H) Centipede (Chilopoda). (I) Harvestman (Opiliones). (J) Jumping spider (Araneae: Salticidae). (K) Snail (Gastropoda: Cyclophoridae). Scale bars, 1 mm (A, B, and E), 0.5 mm (C, D, G, H, J, and K), 0.2 mm (F), and 2 mm (I).

  • Fig. 4 Representative insects in Zhangpu amber of biogeographic and ecological significance.

    (A) Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Leptomyrmex). (B) Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Lophomyrmex). (C) Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Tetragonula). (D) Bristletail (Archaeognatha: Machilidae). (E) Dustywing (Neuroptera: Coniopterygidae: Heteroconis). (F) Stick insect (Phasmida: Lonchodidae: Orxines). (G) Earwig (Dermaptera: Labiduridae) and termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae: Coptotermes). (H) Two flies (Diptera: Mycetophilidae) and one leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). (I) Stonefly (Plecoptera: Nemouridae: Podmosta) and scale insect (Hemiptera: Coccoidea). (J) Bark lice (Psocodea: Psocidae). (K) Planthopper (Hemiptera: Issidae). (L) Termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae: Coptotermes). Scale bars, 1 mm (A, C, and G), 0.5 mm (B, E, J, and L), and 2 mm (D, F, H, I, and K).

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary Materials

    The mid-Miocene Zhangpu biota reveals an outstandingly rich rainforest biome in East Asia

    Bo Wang, Gongle Shi, Chunpeng Xu, Robert A. Spicer, Vincent Perrichot, Alexander R. Schmidt, Kathrin Feldberg, Jochen Heinrichs, Cédric Chény, Hong Pang, Xingyue Liu, Taiping Gao, Zixi Wang, Adam Ślipiński, Mónica M. Solórzano-Kraemer, Sam W. Heads, M. Jared Thomas, Eva-Maria Sadowski, Jacek Szwedo, Dany Azar, André Nel, Ye Liu, Jun Chen, Qi Zhang, Qingqing Zhang, Cihang Luo, Tingting Yu, Daran Zheng, Haichun Zhang, Michael S. Engel

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