The regulatory enzymes and protein substrates for the lysine β-hydroxybutyrylation pathway

See allHide authors and affiliations

Science Advances  24 Feb 2021:
Vol. 7, no. 9, eabe2771
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abe2771


Metabolism-mediated epigenetic changes represent an adapted mechanism for cellular signaling, in which lysine acetylation and methylation have been the historical focus of interest. We recently discovered a β-hydroxybutyrate–mediated epigenetic pathway that couples metabolism to gene expression. However, its regulatory enzymes and substrate proteins remain unknown, hindering its functional study. Here, we report that the acyltransferase p300 can catalyze the enzymatic addition of β-hydroxybutyrate to lysine (Kbhb), while histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) and HDAC2 enzymatically remove Kbhb. We demonstrate that p300-dependent histone Kbhb can directly mediate in vitro transcription. Moreover, a comprehensive analysis of Kbhb substrates in mammalian cells has identified 3248 Kbhb sites on 1397 substrate proteins. The dependence of histone Kbhb on p300 argues that enzyme-catalyzed acylation is the major mechanism for nuclear Kbhb. Our study thus reveals key regulatory elements for the Kbhb pathway, laying a foundation for studying its roles in diverse cellular processes.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, so long as the resultant use is not for commercial advantage and provided the original work is properly cited.

View Full Text

Stay Connected to Science Advances