Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • Materials and Methods
  • Fig. S1. Sexual dichromatism in brightness (PC1) and hue (PC2) in relation to mating system and breeding latitude.
  • Fig. S2. Examples of reflectance spectra for males of species with high (splendid fairy-wren, Malurus splendens) and low (American goldfinch, Carduelis tristis) hue (PC2 scores were 35.7 and −9.9, respectively).
  • Fig. S3. An example of duller plumage in males of polygynous species.
  • Table S1. PCA of reflectance data for 977 species of birds.
  • Table S2. Monochromatism in relation to morphological, ecological, and behavioral variables.
  • Table S3. Sexual dichromatism in plumage brightness (PC1 dichro) and hue (PC2 dichro), and variation in brightness (PC1) and hue (PC2) for each sex in relation to life history and ecological variables associated with natural and sexual selection (N = 977 species).
  • Table S4. Sexual dichromatism in plumage brightness (PC1) in relation to life history and ecological variables in PGLS models.
  • Table S5. Sexual dichromatism in plumage brightness (PC1) in relation to life history and ecological variables in the full PGLS model (see table S4).
  • Table S6. Sexual dichromatism in plumage hue (PC2) in relation to life history and ecological variables in PGLS models.
    Table S7. Sexual dichromatism in plumage hue (PC2) in relation to life history and ecological variables in the full PGLS model (see table S6).
  • Table S8. Female plumage brightness (PC1) in relation to life history and ecological variables in PGLS models.
  • Table S9. Female plumage brightness (PC1) in relation to life history and ecological variables in the full PGLS model (see table S8).
  • Table S10. Male plumage brightness (PC1) in relation to life history and ecological variables in PGLS models.
  • Table S11. Male plumage brightness (PC1) in relation to life history and ecological variables in the full PGLS model (see table S10).
  • Table S12. Female plumage hue (PC2) in relation to life history and ecological variables in PGLS models.
  • Table S13. Female plumage hue (PC2) in relation to life history and ecological variables in the full PGLS model (see table S12).
  • Table S14. Male plumage hue (PC2) in relation to life history and ecological variables in PGLS models.
  • Table S15. Male plumage hue (PC2) in relation to life history and ecological variables in the full PGLS model (see table S14).
  • References (40–50)

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Data file S1. Plumage color and ecological data for 977 species (Data977.csv).
  • Data file S2. Nexus file of 100 phylogenetic trees for the 977 species (trees100spp977.tre).
  • Data file S3. Plumage brightness (PC1) in three categories and 100 phylogenetic trees (PC1_LoMedHi_100trees.xml; Simmap file).
  • Data file S4. Plumage hue (PC2) in three categories and 100 phylogenetic trees (PC2_LoMedHi_100trees.xml; Simmap file).

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