Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

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  • Materials and Methods
  • Text
  • Fig. S1. The nondimensionless planetesimal masses μ = ρpx)3 (here ρp is the particle density represented by the planetesimal in a grid cell and δx is the size of the cell) and corresponding contracted radii as a function of time after self-gravity is turned on.
  • Fig. S2. The accretion radius Racc (that is, the impact parameter required for accretion, given in units of the Bondi radius RB) versus the particle friction time tf (in units of the Bondi time-scale tB), for planetesimal radii R between 10−4 RB and 104 RB.
  • Fig. S3. The evolution of eccentricity e and inclination i of 1000 planetesimals with mass M = 1024 g located at 1 AU with a surface density of 10 g/cm2, for three values of the time-step.
  • Fig. S4. The evolution of eccentricity e and inclination i of 800 planetesimals with mass M = 1024 g located at 1 AU with a surface density of 10 g/cm2.
  • Fig. S5. Phase points covering planetesimal orbits with inclinations i = 0, i = 0.0016, i = 0.0032, and i = 0.0064.
  • Fig. S6. The effect of eccentricity and inclination on the chondrule accretion rate, at an orbital distance of 2.5 AU.
    Fig. S7. The accretion rate of planetesimals at 25 AU, as a function of the planetesimal size.
  • Fig. S8. The stratification integral (that is, the mean particle density over the accretion cross section) as a function of the accretion radius of the planetesimal.
  • Fig. S9. The number of remaining bodies versus time for the constant kernel test.
  • Fig. S10. Damping of eccentricities and inclinations of 10,000 1-cm–sized planetesimals located between 30 and 35 AU, emulating a test problem defined in Morbidelli et al. (21).
  • Fig. S11. Cumulative size distribution after 3 Myr of coagulation within a population of planetesimals of initial diameters 100 km (50 km in radius), as shown by the cross.
  • Fig. S12. Formation of planetesimals from centimeter-sized particles in a 2D shearing sheet simulation with the same spatial extent as the streaming instability simulations presented in the main text.
  • References (56–77)

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