Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

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  • Fig. S1. Distribution of polyarginine (A) and polylysine (B) runs of different length in several organisms.
  • Fig. S2. Expression of HA-X-mCherry reporters in CHO cells.
  • Fig. S3. Expression of HA-X-mCherry reporters in Drosophila S2 cells.
  • Fig. S4. Expression of HA-X-mCherry reporters from T7-RNA polymerase in vitro transcribed mCherry mRNAs in HDFs.
  • Fig. S5. Differential stability of electroporated mRNAs from HA-X-mCherry reporters is translation-dependent.
  • Fig. S6. Insertion of polylysine mCherry constructs in the coding sequence results in the same protein reduction and decreased mRNA stability.
  • Fig. S7. Expression of HA-tagged hemoglobin (delta chain; HBD) constructs with natural introns in HDF cells.
  • Fig. S8. Comparison of usage of AAA in single, double, and triple lysine runs across several organisms.
  • Fig. S9. Observed codon usage in all isoforms of human proteins versus expected (based on the proportions 0.44 to 0.56, AAA to AAG for all lysines) in the tracks of four consecutive lysines.
  • Fig. S10. Codon distribution in four-lysine tracks in different organisms.
  • Fig. S11. Occupancy of ribosomal footprints from three different data sets: (A) region around poly(A) tracks; (B) region around four arginine tracks, all codon combinations together.
  • Fig. S12. Sequence conservation of RAS activating-like protein 2 gene (RASAL2) at DNA and protein sequences.
  • Fig. S13. Synonymous mutations in mCherry reporter with metadherin MTDH, Lyric(Lyr) poly(A) track.
  • Fig. S14. Synonymous mutations in mCherry reporter with RASAL2 poly(A) track.
  • Fig. S15. Expression analysis of N-terminally HA-tagged and C-terminally GFP-tagged ZCRB1 gene and its synonymous mutants in HDF cells using EVOS FL microscope.
  • Fig. S16. Introduction of COSMIC database reported synonymous mutation K447K (1341G>A) in full-length recombinant MTDH gene.
  • Fig. S17. Frameshifting efficiency of poly(A) tracks from ZCRB1 wild type (A) and ZCRB G>A mutant (B) measured by luciferase activity.
  • Fig. S18. Proportion of mutation types in poly(A) segments versus all mutation types.
  • Fig. S19. The normalized distribution of lengths for poly(A) regions identified as 12 A’s allowing for one mismatch up to length 19 in human transcripts.
  • Table S1. Statistics of occurrences of transcripts containing poly(A) tracks in different organisms.
  • Table S2. Overrepresentation of Gene Ontology terms for 456 genes containing poly(A) tracks in their coding regions up to P value of 0.05.
  • Table S3. Table of mRNAs that have intron-exon boundary closer than 50 nucleotides downstream from a stop codon arising from frameshifting over poly(A) tracks.
  • Table S4. Peptides arising from possible frameshifting on poly(A) tracks.
  • Table S5. Table of genes with mutations within poly(A) region reported in COSMIC database.
  • Table S6. Sequences of mCherry inserts.
  • Data D1. Analysis of dbSNP database.

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