Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • Fig. S1. Interactive version of database.
  • Fig. S2. Photographs of eye rotation and head pitch in the horse.
  • Movie S1. Video of eye rotation with head pitch in sheep.
  • Table S1. List of species.
  • Table S2. Number of species in each category.
  • Table S3. Relative-risk ratios with horizontal pupil as reference.
  • Table S4. Statistical significance of relationships between ecological niche and pupil shape for Felids and Canids with pylogenetic relatedness taken into account.
  • Movie S2. Video showing changes in image properties for different amounts of defocus and pupil orientations.

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). Video showing sheep changing head pitch. Again the eye undergoes a torsional movement such that the pupil?s long axis maintains rough alignment with earth horizontal.
  • Movie S2 (.mp4 format). Video showing changes in image properties for different amounts of defocus and pupil orientations. Left: Cross-sections of PSFs as a function of focal distance for an eye with an elongated pupil (major axis of 12mm, minor axis of 1.5mm). The orientation of the pupil rotates from vertical to horizontal and back again. The object was white. The PSFs incorporate diffraction and chromatic aberration. Log amplitude is represented by brightness, brighter corresponding to high amplitude. Amplitudes lower than 10-3 of the peak amplitude have been clipped. The upper panel shows horizontal cross-sections (relevant for imaging vertical contours) and the lower panel shows vertical sections (for imaging horizontals). The faint dashed white lines are from Eqns 3 and 4 and show that the equations are a good approximation to the PSF cross-sections. Right: Photograph of a depth-varying scene taken with a camera with a slit aperture that rotates from vertical to horizontal and back. The camera was focused on the toy bird. Objects nearer and farther than the bird are blurred, but the direction of greatest blur depends strongly on the orientation of the aperture. For example, when the aperture is vertical, near and far vertical contours are sharper than horizontal contours. When the aperture is horizontal, the opposite holds.

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