Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • Fig. S1. SEM image of carbon fiber cloth.
  • Fig. S2. SEM image of MoS2/C synthesized with reduced precursor concentration.
  • Fig. S3. SEM images of MoS2/C synthesized after different durations of hydrothermal treatment.
  • Fig. S4. SEM images of NiSx/C.
  • Fig. S5. SEM images of aggregates.
  • Fig. S6. EDS spectra of different samples.
  • Fig. S7. Point EDS spectra of Ni-Mo-S/C (3:1).
  • Fig. S8. HRTEM images of Ni-Mo-S/C (1:1).
  • Fig. S9. Elemental mapping of Ni-Mo-S/C (1:1).
  • Fig. S10. BET measurements of Ni-Mo-S/C (1:1).
  • Fig. S11. Normalized current density.
  • Fig. S12. HER tests in 0.5 M H2SO4.
  • Fig. S13. Electrode for intuitive comparison test.
  • Fig. S14. Intuitive comparison test for HER.
  • Fig. S15. EASA measurements for MoS2/C and Ni-Mo-S/C (1:1).
  • Fig. S16. Irreversible electrochemical oxidation cyclic voltammetry curves.
  • Fig. S17. HER stability of Pt in neutral electrolyte.
  • Fig. S18. XPS spectra of fresh and deactivated Pt plate electrodes.
  • Fig. S19. High-resolution XPS spectra of Ni-Mo-S/C (1:1) after stability test.
  • Fig. S20. Experimental setup for Faraday efficiency test.
  • Fig. S21. Actual experimental setup for Faraday efficiency measurement.
  • Fig. S22. Laboratory-scale Ni-Mo-S/C hydrogen generator.
  • Fig. S23. Assembly of laboratory-scale Ni-Mo-S/C hydrogen generator.
  • Fig. S24. EXAFS spectra of Ni-Mo-S/C (1:1).
  • Fig. S25. Formation mechanism of Ni-Mo-S nanostructure.
  • Fig. S26. Molecular models.
  • Fig. S27. Collection of seawater.
  • Fig. S28. HER of Ni-Mo-S/C (1:1) in seawater.
  • Note S1. Brief explanation on the aggregation mechanism of MoS2 nanostructures.
  • Note S2. Irreversible electrochemical oxidation of MoS2/C and Ni-Mo-S/C (1:1).
  • Note S3. XPS study of the rapid deactivation of Pt in neutral buffer electrolyte.
  • Note S4. Faraday efficiency calculation.
  • Note S5. Hydrogen evolution on Ni-Mo-S/C (1:1) in real seawater.
  • Table S1. Exchange current densities of MoS2/C, NiSx/C, and different Ni-Mo-S/C samples in neutral electrolyte.
  • Table S2. Comparison of electrocatalysts for HER in neutral or near-neutral electrolytes.
  • Table S3. Comparison of various MoSx-based electrocatalysts for HER.
  • References (54–68)

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Movie S1 (.wmv format). Hydrogen evolution on Ni-Mo-S/C (1:1) electrode in neutral electrolyte.
  • Movie S2 (.wmv format). Intuitive comparison test for HER.
  • Movie S3 (.wmv format). Laboratory-scale Ni-Mo-S/C (1:1) hydrogen generator.

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