Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • Fig. S1. Base material physical properties under cell culture conditions.
  • Fig. S2. Hook and loop interlocking mechanism is a dominant factor governing the mechanical stability of the assembled two-layer structures.
  • Fig. S3. Cardiac tissue contractility.
  • Fig. S4. Immunostaining of cardiac Tissue-Velcro on day 7 for sarcomeric α-actinin (red) and F-actin (green) at various locations of the tissues.
  • Fig. S5. Drug response.
  • Fig. S6. Coculture of cardiac and endothelial cells.
  • Fig. S7. Scanning electron micrograph of the assembled two-layer cardiac tissue cultivated for 3 days.
  • Fig. S8. Scanning electron micrograph of an additional Tissue-Velcro design with spring-like structures that could potentially be used to enhance scaffold anisotropic mechanical properties and tissue anisotropic contraction.
  • Reference (54)

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Movie S1 (.mov format). The 3D confocal reconstruction of two interlocked scaffolds shows the hooks from the scaffold on the lower layer catching on the struts of the scaffold on the upper layer.
  • Movie S2 (.mov format). Recording of a mechanical pull-off test to measure the force required to detach interlocked scaffolds.
  • Movie S3 (.mov format). Two interlocked cardiac tissue layers were manipulated with tweezers, demonstrating that assembled multilayer tissue constructs can be handled and manipulated.
  • Movie S4 (.mov format). Time lapse of seeded CMs remodeling and compacting over a 3-day period on a single layer scaffold mesh (no hooks).
  • Movie S5 (.mov format). Contraction of cardiac tissue mesh after tissue remodeling, day 4.
  • Movie S6 (.mov format). Electrical field stimulation applied to a single scaffold mesh (no hooks) seeded with CMs, after 7 days in culture.
  • Movie S7 (.mov format). Autofluorescent scaffold contraction recorded and processed to measure fractional shortening.
  • Movie S8 (.mov format). Vertical scan of a three-layer Tissue-Velcro.
  • Movie S9 (.mov format). Electrically paced cardiac tissues contracting before assembly, after assembly, after disassembly, and 1 day after disassembly.
  • Movie S10 (.mov format). Spontaneous contraction of a two-layer cardiac tissue cultured for an additional 3 days after assembly.
  • Movie S11 (.mov format). Response of Tissue-Velcro (day 5) to epinephrine (300 nM) stimulation.

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