Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • Methods: Device fabrication
  • Materials: Peel strength and adhesion
  • Fig. S1. Analysis of thermal actuator power levels.
  • Fig. S2. Epidermal device data output for skin locations with isotropic thermal transport.
  • Fig. S3. FEA verification for the transient scaling law.
  • Fig. S4. Comparison between FEA and polydimethylsiloxane experiments.
  • Fig. S5. Optical VeinViewer image used to accurately identify blood vessel locations.
  • Fig. S6. The influence of variation of λsf, ρfcfscs, and B/L on the transient scaling law.
  • Fig. S7. Verification for the steady-state scaling law by FEA and experiments.
  • Fig. S8. The influence of variation of λsf, h/L, and B/L on the steady-state scaling law.
  • Fig. S9. Transient temperature response caused by flow speed change.
  • Fig. S10. Noise analysis of epidermal data acquisition system.
  • Fig. S11. Noise analysis of epidermal devices on skin.
  • Fig. S12. Statistical correlation between LSCI data and epidermal device data from Fig. 4.
  • Fig. S13. Comparison between LDF signal and epidermal device signal during 10 min of natural flow on the volar aspect of the wrist of a male, age 33.
  • Fig. S14. Comparison between LDF signal and epidermal device signal during 10 min of natural flow on the dorsal aspect of the hand of a male, age 23.
  • Fig. S15. Quantitative blood flow conversion of Fig. 5A.
  • Fig. S16. Statistical correlation between LSCI data and epidermal device data from Fig. 5A.
  • Fig. S17. Assessment of depth of vein associated with Fig. 5J.
  • Fig. S18. Device thermal signals during motion.
  • Fig. S19. LDF measurements before and after slap-induced microvascular hyperemia.
  • Fig. S20. Statistical correlation between LSCI data and epidermal device data from Fig. 7.
  • Fig. S21. Comparison of errors induced in the device response for continuous mode and pulsed mode actuation in a control experiment.
  • Fig. S22. Epidermal device wiring diagram and hardware setup.
  • Legends for movies S1 to S4

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Movie S1A (.mp4 format). Movie of device signals over time for experiments presented in Fig. 3 (A to C).
  • Movie S1B (.mp4 format). Infrared movie showing the sequential pressure applications for experiments presented in Fig. 3 (A to C) and movie S1A.
  • Movie S2 (.mp4 format). Movie of device signals over time for experiments presented in Fig. 4 (A to D).
  • Movie S3 (.mp4 format). Movie of device signals over time for experiments presented in Fig. 5 (A to I).
  • Movie S4 (.mp4 format). Infrared movie of thermal distribution over time due to device heating for experiments presented in Fig. 5 (J to M). An arrow in the infrared movie shows the location of the pulses, which appear during the period of 460 s < t < 620 s. Text indicators are also displayed during the movie to coincide with each pulse.

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