Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • Fig. S1. Schematic illustration of the MGM having a dual-gradient structure with vertical and lateral gradients.
  • Fig. S2. The XPS survey spectra of GO-PDA/HI and rGO.
  • Fig. S3. Powder XRD patterns of GO, GO-PDA, GO-PDA/HI, rGO, and graphite.
  • Fig. S4. Raman spectra of GO, GO-PDA, GO-PDA/HI, and rGO.
  • Fig. S5. Optical images show the adhesive tape–peeling method (top).
  • Fig. S6. The gravimetric tensile strength of GO-PDA/rGO and rGO regions.
  • Fig. S7. The thickness profiles of the GO-PDA line with light on and off.
  • Fig. S8. The digital photograph of the moisture control device and the recovery performance tested at different relative humidity environments.
  • Fig. S9. Schematic illustration of θ, γ, L, F, and ρ (L is the width of the GO-PDA line; F is the stress generated by the GO-PDA line; ρ is the radius of curvature; θ is the bending angle of MGM; γ is the supplementary angles of θ).
  • Fig. S10. Schematic illustration of the preparation of a self-folding box.
  • Fig. S11. The stress generated by the MGMs (middle and right) were measured on the universal testing machine (Instron Model 5969) with on/off NIR light irradiations (left).
  • Fig. S12. CrossCross -sectional field emission SEM images indicating GO-PDA/rGO regions for different GO-PDA lines: (A) 1 mm, (B) 3 mm, and (C) 5 mm.
  • Fig. S13. Temperature-change curves and the energy conversion efficiency of MGM.
  • Fig. S14. Cycle output test of MGM under on/off irradiations.
  • Fig. S15. Optical image of the walking behavior of the walking device driven by NIR light.
  • Fig. S16. The turning behavior of the walking device.
  • Fig. S17. Turning angle of the walking devices as a function of time as light is turned on and off for different illumination areas.
  • Fig. S18. Optical images show the walking device progressing over a virtual map driven by light irradiation (scale bar, 3 cm).
  • Fig. S19. The schematic illustration and optical image showing the measurement of the bending angle using a laser displacement sensor.
  • Table S1. Maximum output stress, bending angle, and theoretical bending angle as a function of GO-PDA width (average value of data).
  • Note S1. Calculations of the maximum energy conversion efficiency of our actuator.
  • Methods
  • Legends for movies S1 to S6

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). The photoactuation behavior of the self-folding box.
  • Movie S2 (.mp4 format). The walking behavior of the wormlike walking device driven by an NIR light on and off (100 mW cm−2).
  • Movie S3 (.mp4 format). The worming behavior of the wormlike walking device driven by an NIR light on and off (100 mW cm−2).
  • Movie S4 (.mp4 format). The turning behavior of the wormlike walking device driven by an IR laser.
  • Movie S5 (.mp4 format). The grasping behavior of the “artificial/robotic hand” driven by light irradiation.
  • Movie S6 (.mp4 format). The crawling behavior of the “microrobot” inside a minipipe driven by an NIR light on and off (100 mW cm−2).

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