Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

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  • RFLB full cell performance with a lithiated Nafion 212 membrane
  • Fig. S1. Voltage profiles of an RFLB full cell using the lithiated Nafion 212 membrane.
  • Swelling and solvent uptake of lithiated Nafion 212 and NP11 membranes
  • Table S1. Swelling and PC uptake of the lithiated Nafion 212 and NP11 membrane.
  • Resistance of an RFLB with the NP11 membrane
  • Fig. S2. Nyquist plots of the impedance of the NP11 membrane measured in an RFLB cell after different durations of electrolyte circulation.
  • AFM phase image of a lithiated Nafion 212 membrane
  • Fig. S3. AFM image of a lithiated Nafion 212 membrane for comparison.
  • Permeability test of redox mediators across different membranes
  • Fig. S4. Permeability study of the membranes.
  • Morphological characterization of the NP11 membrane before and after cycling
  • Fig. S5. Morphological features of the NP11 membrane.
  • Areal resistance of Nafion and composite membranes
  • Table S2. Comparison of the areal resistance, conductivity, and DL of different membranes.
  • Cell performance of an RFLB full cell with the NP21 membrane
  • Fig. S6. Cell performance of an RFLB with the NP21 membrane.
  • Fig. S7. Nyquist plots of the impedance of a conductivity cell with different membranes.
  • AFM image of the NP11 membrane after cycling in an RFLB full cell
  • Fig. S8. AFM image of the NP11 membrane after cycling in an RFLB full cell.
  • FTIR spectra of the NP11 membrane before and after cycling in an RFLB full cell
  • Fig. S9. FTIR spectra of the NP11 membrane before and after cycling in an RFLB full cell.
  • RFLB full cell performance with the NP11 membrane
  • Fig. S10. Voltage profiles of the RFLB full cell.

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