Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • Fig. S1. Representative SEM image of HA scaffold prepared by bidirectional freezing in the cross section perpendicular to the cold finger.
  • Fig. S2. Representative SEM image of HA scaffold in the cross section perpendicular to the cold finger.
  • Fig. S3. X-ray computed microtomography images for scaffolds prepared by (A) conventional and (B) bidirectional freezing.
  • Fig. S4. Processing of SEM images.
  • Fig. S5. Original SEM images of samples prepared under various conditions.
  • Fig. S6. Optical images showing ice profiles during freeze casting under dual temperature gradients with α = 10°, but at different cooling rates.
  • Fig. S7. Temperature measurements during conventional and bidirectional freeze casting.
  • Fig. S8. Representative SEM image of the cross section of a freeze-cast HA scaffold illustrating the different structural features and parameters.
  • Fig. S9. Structural parameters of HA scaffolds fabricated by bidirectional freezing.
  • Table S1. Porosity, pore area, lamellar thickness, interlamellar spacing, compressive strength, and Young’s modulus values for scaffolds prepared with different cooling rates (1, 5, and 10°C/min) and slope angles (0°, 5°, 10°, and 20°).
  • Table S2. Compressive strength and Young’s modulus values for scaffolds prepared by conventional (control) and bidirectional (α = 20°) freezing, both at 10°C/min.

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