Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

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  • Fig. S1. Independent certification from Newport Corporation confirming PCEs of 19.90% (backward scan) and 19.73% (forward scan) and a normalized electroluminescence quantum efficiency.
  • Fig. S2. Photograph of two real devices (front view and back view) showing the active area of the solar cell, the high reflectivity of the smooth gold electrode, and the densely opaque optical appearance of the perovskite film.
  • Fig. S3. Histogram of solar cell efficiencies for 40 solar cells, with the optimized PbI2/FAI = 1.05.
  • Fig. S4. Initial stability test of PSCs sealed using epoxy and stored in a desiccator in the dark.
  • Fig. S5. Absorption spectra of perovskite films on m-TiO2/c-TiO2/FTO substrate with varying RPbI2/FAImeasured in transmission.
  • Fig. S6. Top-view SEM images of perovskite films on ms-TiO2/c-TiO2/FTO with varying PbI2/FAI ratios (0.85, 1, 1.05, 1.1, 1.16, 1.23, 1.37, and 1.54) in the precursor solutions.
  • Fig. S7. XRD patterns of perovskite films on ms-TiO2/c-TiO2/FTO with varying PbI2/FAI ratios (0.85, 1, 1.05, 1.1, 1.16, 1.23, 1.37, and 1.54) in the precursor solutions.
  • Fig. S8. Normalized (001) peaks of PbI2 phase showing the variation in full widths at half maximum with increasing ratios of PbI2/FAPbI3 fraction.
  • Fig. S9. Cross-sectional SEM images of perovskite films on ms-TiO2/c-TiO2/FTO with varying PbI2/FAI ratios (1, 1.05, 1.1, 1.23, 1.37, and 1.54) in the precursor solution.
  • Fig. S10. External electroluminescence quantum efficiency as a function of the injection current for the device with PbI2/FAI = 1.16.
  • Fig. S11. Normalized PL spectra of perovskite films on ms-TiO2/bl-TiO2/FTO with varying PbI2/FAI ratios (1, 1.05, 1.1, 1.23, 1.37, and 1.54) in the precursor solution.
  • Fig. S12. PL decay of perovskite films on ms-TiO2/bl-TiO2/FTO with varying PbI2/FAI ratios (1, 1.05, 1.1, 1.16, 1.23, 1.37, and 1.54) in the precursor solution.
  • Table S1. Photovoltaic parameters for PSCs measured using forward scan (from JSC to VOC) and backward scan (from VOC to JSC) at different scanning speeds (B, backward; F, forward).
  • Table S2. Photovoltaic parameters for the stability of PSCs measured under AM 1.5 G illumination (solar cells were sealed with epoxy and stored in a dessicator).
  • Table S3. Composition of perovskite composite film determined by Rietveld refinement.

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