Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • X-ray diffractometry
  • In situ heating within the TEM
  • Off-axis electron holography
  • fig. S1. X-ray diffraction pattern of the Fe3O4 powder.
  • fig. S2. Images of DENSsolutions Wildfire in situ heating holder and EMheaterchips.
  • fig. S3. Schematic diagram of the setup for off-axis electron holography.
  • fig. S4. Magnetic induction maps of sample G1 at intermediate stages of heating and cooling.
  • fig. S5. Magnetic induction maps and proposed 3D forms of vortex states in sample G1.
  • fig. S6. Magnetic induction maps of sample G2 at intermediate stages of heating and cooling.
  • fig. S7. Magnetic induction maps and proposed 3D forms of vortex states in sample G2.

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