Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • fig. S1. Table of equilibrium solutions for three-species Lotka-Volterra model of IGP for the basal resource (R), the mesopredator (N), and the apex predator (P).
  • fig. S2. Response of the equilibrium densities of the apex predator (P) and mesopredator (N) to increases in the resource’s carrying capacity (K) for stable equilibria in which all three species coexist (RNP), only the resource and mesopredator coexist (RN), and only the resource and the apex predator coexist (RP).
  • fig. S3. Stable (solid line) and unstable (dashed line) equilibrium densities for the apex predator (P) and mesopredator (N) across a range of the apex predator’s prey preferences.

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