Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

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  • fig. S1. XPS spectra of PEMTA brushes with different counterions (SO42−, Cl, and I) in the regions of S2p, Cl2p, and I3d.
  • fig. S2. Homemade experimental apparatus used to detect the HIN on PB surfaces.
  • fig. S3. Freezing process of individual water droplets on PMETA‐I brushes (0.05 chain/nm2) during the temperature-jump experiment at a cooling rate of 2.0°C/min (detected by a high-speed camera).
  • fig. S4. Preparation process of PMETA-SO4 and PMETA-I brush surfaces divided by a gap of Si on the same wafer.
  • fig. S5. Distribution of TH on PMETA brush surfaces (grafting density of 0.5 chain/nm2 and thickness of 50 nm) with different counterions (SO42−, Cl, and I).
  • fig. S6. HIN on cationic SAMs with different counteranions.
  • fig. S7. Influence of cooling rate (from 1.0 to 10.0°C/min) on the ice nucleation temperature of PMETA-SO4, PMETA-Cl, and PMETA-I brush surfaces (grafting density of 0.5 chain/nm2 and thickness of 50 nm).
  • fig. S8. Distribution of TH on PSPMA brush surfaces (grafting density of 0.9 chain/nm2 and thickness of 20 nm) with different counterions (Li+, Na+, and K+).
  • fig. S9. HIN on anioinc SAMs with different countercations.
  • fig. S10. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring results as a function of different counteranions in the PMETA brushes.
  • fig. S11. Thickness of PMETA brushes with different counterions measured by spectroscopic ellipsometer under aqueous solution.
  • fig. S12. Contact angle of PMETA brush surfaces with different counterions.
  • fig. S13. Surface morphology and roughness of PMETA brush.
  • fig. S14. MD simulation illustration of PB with counterions.
  • fig. S15. Distribution of outmost QA+ headgroup of PMETA-F, PMETA-Cl, and PMETA-I at the brush/water interface.
  • fig. S16. Concentration of the diffused counterions above the PMETA brush at 300 K.
  • fig. S17. Strength of the electric field of PMETA-F, PMETA-Cl, and PMETA-I above the brush/water interface.
  • fig. S18. Water density and ice-like water density of PMETA-F, PMETA-Cl, and PMETA-I brushes.
  • table S1. The fraction of ice-like water molecules (tetrahedrality above 0.9), the ice-like water making rate constant k, and the concentration of ice-like water at the brush/water interface with the same concentration of counterion (0.25 M).
  • Experiment details
  • MD simulation details
  • References (52–58)

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