Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • fig. S1. Relationship of observed and simulated SST trends in the Indo-Pacific region with global mean temperatures during 1953–2012.
  • fig. S2. Simulated IPWP area and intensity.
  • fig. S3. Relationships between warm pool intensity and area.
  • fig. S4. Time series of tropical ocean and warm pool intensity and zonal gradient during 1953–2012.
  • fig. S5. Sensitivity of observed SST trends and warm pool expansion over the Indo-Pacific during 1953–2012 to data set.
  • fig. S6. Observed rainfall anomalies associated with warm pool intensity and area variations.
  • fig. S7. Observed rainfall trend during the satellite era and intermodel relationship between zonal contrast of warm pool expansion and Pacific decadal variability.
  • fig. S8. Simulated rainfall trends from two groups of CMIP5 models and their difference.
  • fig. S9. Intermodel relationships between trends in convection and the IPWP.
  • fig. S10. Sensitivity of simulated warm pool intensity and area anomalies to model samples.
  • fig. S11. Sensitivity of optimal detection results to model samples.
  • table S1. List of CMIP5 model simulations used in this study.
  • table S2. Performance of 42 CMIP5 models integrated with observed time-evolving changes in anthropogenic and natural forcings.

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