Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

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  • Simulation details
  • fig. S1. Schematic illustration of conventional approaches for liposome/metal hybrids and their critical limitations.
  • fig. S2. Additional TEM images of LGNP (using membrane filter with a pore diameter of 100 nm).
  • fig. S3. Photographs and absorbance spectra of control experiments.
  • fig. S4. Reduction of gold ions above the transition temperature of lipid (DSPC).
  • fig. S5. Molecular structure of DSPC and EDS spectrum and relative atomic percentages of as-prepared liposome/Au and liposome/Ag hybrid nanoparticles.
  • fig. S6. Time-dependent representative absorbance spectra of programmable liposome solution after the exposure with gold precursor.
  • fig. S7. Diffusivities of acetamide and neutral gold ion complex.
  • fig. S8. Photographs and absorbance spectra of solutions of the gold precursor–encoded liposome after addition of reducing agent.
  • fig. S9. Additional TEM images of various liposome/metal hybrid nanoparticles.
  • fig. S10. Representative time-resolved absorbance spectra of liposome/monometallic hybrid nanoparticle.
  • fig. S11. Size distributions of liposome/monometallic and liposome/bimetallic hybrids.
  • fig. S12. EDS spectra of liposome/bimetallic hybrids.
  • fig. S13. Representative TEM images and corresponding EDS elemental line profiles of liposome/bimetallic hybrids.
  • fig. S14. Representative TEM images of liposome/bimetallic hybrids synthesized from different precursor molar ratios.
  • fig. S15. Atomic percentages and absorbance spectra of liposome/Au-Ag hybrids and liposome/Au-Pd hybrids synthesized from different precursor molar ratios.
  • fig. S16. Representative relative absorbance at the SPR peaks of LGNP, GNP, and GNR under a wide variety of biologically relevant solutions and representative relative absorbance of LGNP with time duration of up to 1 month.
  • fig. S17. Viability of U-87 MG cells treated with LGNP and GNP solutions.
  • fig. S18. Optical microscope images and Raman spectra obtained from various cells after being treated with LGNP and GNP.
  • fig. S19. Fluorescent image and Raman spectra obtained from Alexa Fluor 546–stained U-87 MG cells, and optical microscope images and Raman maps obtained from Alexa Fluor 546–stained U-87MG cells after being treated with LGNP and GNP.
  • table S1. Calculated relative atomic percentages of gold and oxygen atoms in LGNP.
  • table S2. The number of metal atoms per unit volume in liposome/Au, liposome/Ag, and liposome/Pd hybrids, measured by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.
  • Reference (51)

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