Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • fig. S1. Weakened photochemistry by aerosol dimming effects during January 2013 in Beijing.
  • fig. S2. Importance of the NO2 reaction pathway for sulfate production in the Beijing haze (January 2013).
  • fig. S3. Influence of ionic strength (I) on rate of aqueous sulfate-producing reactions.
  • fig. S4. Estimation of Fe3+ and Mn2+ concentrations as a function of aerosol water pH during Beijing hazes.
  • fig. S5. Regional pollution across the NCP during January 2013.
  • fig. S6. Annual precipitation pH of China in 2013.
  • fig. S7. The same as Fig. 2 but with a lower limit of reaction rate constants reported by Lee and Schwartz (18).
  • table S1. Previously reported concentrations of cations and anions in PM2.5 during winter for cities in NCP used in Fig. 1D.
  • table S2. Summary of field observation and methods in this study.
  • table S3. Domain, configurations, and major dynamic and physical options used in WRF v3.5.1.
  • table S4. Rate expression and rate coefficients of relevant aqueous-phase reactions.
  • table S5. Constants for calculating the apparent Henry’s constant (H*).
  • table S6. Summary of suggested activity coefficient (a)–ionic strength (I) dependence.
  • table S7. Influence of ionic strength (I) on rate of aqueous sulfate-producing reactions.
  • References (108–128)

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