Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

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  • Supplementary section
  • fig. S1. Spectrum of an array of 55-nm-diameter Ni nanowires with an average atomic density corresponding to 30% of solid density irradiated at 4 × 1019 W cm−2 with an ultrahigh contrast λ = 400-nm laser pulse of 55-fs duration.
  • fig. S2. Computed electron density distribution in 400-nm-diameter gold nanowire irradiated at an intensity of 1 × 1022 W cm−2 with a 30-fs laser pulse, corresponding to the conditions in Fig. 7.
  • fig. S3. Electron energy distribution under the same irradiation conditions as in fig. S2 at different times with respect to the peak of the laser pulse averaged in space.
  • fig. S4. Computed scaling of the energy density deposited into Au nanowire arrays as a function of the irradiation intensity for two different times during the plasma evolution.
  • fig. S5. Ratio of kinetic energy density to pressure (α) as a function of the ratio of kinetic energy density to rest mass energy density (β).
  • table S1. Pressures calculated from the kinetic energy density computed by the PIC simulations using the approximation by Ryu et al. (26).

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