Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • section S1. Characterization of the perovskite films
  • section S2. PbI2 precursor–based perovskite FETs
  • section S3. Output characteristics of perovskite FETs
  • section S4. Mobility extraction for temperature-dependent transport measurements
  • section S5. Hysteresis in perovskite FETs
  • section S6. Detailed characteristics of Au-PFBT–based perovskite FETs
  • section S7. Role of interlayers at the S-D electrodes
  • section S8. Bias stress measurements on perovskite FETs
  • section S9. Transfer characteristics in continuous mode bias
  • section S10. Ferroelectric polarization measurement
  • section S11. Dielectric dependence of the hysteresis in transfer curves
  • section S12. Role of thermal cycling on the charge transport
  • section S13. Regimes of transport in μFET (T)
  • section S14. Impedance spectroscopy
  • section S15. Estimation of Urbach energy (Eu) with temperature
  • section S16. Temperature-dependent Raman measurement
  • section S17. Temperature-dependent absorption measurement
  • fig. S1. Microscopic characterization.
  • fig. S2. XRD measured on different perovskite thin films.
  • fig. S3. High-resolution XRD indicating the assigned peaks for 0.25 M perovskite films.
  • fig. S4. Structural characterization.
  • fig. S5. PbI2 precursor–based transistors.
  • fig. S6. Effect of grain size on FET characteristics.
  • fig. S7. Typical mobility extraction from linear fits to the I 0.5 ds with Vg for Vd = 60 V.
  • fig. S8. Histograms of mobilities extracted from perovskite FETs fabricated from 0.75 M solution and PEIE-treated electrodes.
  • fig. S9. Hysteresis in output characteristics.
  • fig. S10. Close to room temperature characterization of dual-gated FETs.
  • fig. S11. Low-temperature characterization of dual-gated FETs.
  • fig. S12. Au-PFBT–treated FET characterization.
  • fig. S13. Characterization of interlayer treatment on electrodes.
  • fig. S14. SEM images of the perovskite thin films in different regions around the lithographically patterned pristine Au and modified Au S-D electrodes used for the FET fabrication.
  • fig. S15. SEM image of 0.5 M perovskite films depicting the difference in nucleation and grain size in the channel and on top of the electrodes near the channel-electrode interface for bare Au (left) and PEIE-treated S-D contacts.
  • fig. S16. XRD pattern obtained from the perovskite films (0.75 M precursor) fabricated on different substrates.
  • fig. S17. Stability towards bias stress.
  • fig. S18. Bias stress measurement of the output characteristics at different temperatures measured on perovskite FETs fabricated from 0.75 M precursor solution and Au S-D electrodes.
  • fig. S19. Bias stress measurement of the output characteristics at different temperatures measured on perovskite FETs fabricated from 0.75 M precursor solution and PEIE-treated Au S-D electrodes.
  • fig. S20. Temperature-dependent transfer characteristics measured at Vd = 60 V for perovskite FETs fabricated with 0.75 M precursor, Au-PEIE S-D electrode, and Cytop dielectric measured under a continuous mode of bias.
  • fig. S21. Representative polarization (P)–electric field (E) loops measured on an Au/perovskite (~0.7 μm)/Au sandwich device at different temperatures and frequency.
  • fig. S22. Normalized transfer curves for perovskite FET devices fabricated with 0.75 M Au-PEIE device with Cytop and PMMA dielectric layer.
  • fig. S23. Effect of Vd on FET hysteresis.
  • fig. S24. Effect of temperature cycling on the performance of a perovskite transistor fabricated with 0.75 M precursor solution, Cytop dielectric layer, and PFBT-treated Au S-D electrodes.
  • fig. S25. Transfer characteristics measured on perovskite devices (0.75 M;
    Au-PEIE–treated electrodes), indicating the effect of biasing at Vg = Vd = 60 V on the FET performance during the first cycle of transistor performance.
  • fig. S26. Transfer characteristics measured on perovskite devices (0.75 M; Au-PEIE–treated electrodes) upon thermal cycling.
  • fig. S27. Transfer characteristics measured on perovskite devices (0.75 M; Au-PEIE–treated electrodes) while biasing during thermal cycling.
  • fig. S28. Effect of thermal cycling and bias on the capacitance of perovskite films measured at different temperature.
  • fig. S29. Effect of thermal cycling on energetic disorder in perovskite thin films.
  • fig. S30. Structural characterization of the perovskite thin films of different precursor concentrations upon thermal cycling.
  • fig. S31. Effect of thermal cycling on the perovskite grain size.
  • fig. S32. Transfer curves measured at 100 K from a FET fabricated with a 0.75 M Au-PEIE–treated S-D electrodes with Cytop dielectric layer depicting the effect of thermal cycling.
  • fig. S33. μFET(T) for perovskite transistors fabricated from perovskite films with different precursor concentration.
  • fig. S34. Temperature dependence impedance measurement.
  • fig. S35. Temperature-dependent disorder estimation in perovskite thin films.
  • fig. S36. Raman spectra measured on thin films fabricated with different grain size.
  • fig. S37. Temperature-dependent absorption measurements showing evidence of the phase transition from tetragonal to orthorhombic phase over the temperature range of 160 to 170 K for perovskite films of different grain sizes.

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