Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • Chemicals and materials
  • Fabrication of curly carbon nanosheets
  • Material characterization
  • Battery assembly
  • Electrochemical test
  • CO2 evolution test
  • Energy density calculation
  • Density function theory (DFT) calculation
  • Explanatory calculation
  • fig. S1. The raw materials and synthesis procedures of CPE.
  • fig. S2. The optimization of Na+-CPE.
  • fig. S3. The pore size distribution of CPE.
  • fig. S4. The CO2 diffusion test.
  • fig. S5. SEM images of CPE surface.
  • fig. S6. Roughness and Young modulus of polymer matrix (PVDF-HFP/4% SiO2) of CPE.
  • fig. S7. Leakage test of Na-CO2 batteries.
  • fig. S8. Inflammability test of polymer matrix (PVDF-HFP/SiO2) of CPE.
  • fig. S9. Raman of CPE, polymer matrix, and liquid electrolyte.
  • fig. S10. Transporting mechanism of Na+ in polymer chains and work window of CPE.
  • fig. S11. Long-term stability analysis of CPE.
  • fig. S12. Element mapping and XPS-Na1s of rGO-Na anode.
  • fig. S13. Mechanical strength and toughness of pure Na and rGO-Na anodes.
  • fig. S14. Anode analysis.
  • fig. S15. Galvanostatic cycling of a symmetric rGO-Na electrodes and pure Na anodes.
  • fig. S16. The optimized geometries of CO2 adsorbed on MCNT and a-MCNTs.
  • fig. S17. Soluble inflation of MCNTs and a-MCNTs toward TEGDME solvent.
  • fig. S18. Initial discharge and charge profiles of Na-CO2 batteries with the configuration of Na/NaClO4-TEGDME/cathode.
  • fig. S19. Reaction mechanism analysis of Na-CO2 batteries.
  • fig. S20. Discharge product analysis of quasi–solid state Na-CO2 battery.
  • fig. S21. SEM image of a-MCNT cathode with discharge capacity of 0.1 mA∙hour at 100 mA g−1.
  • fig. S22. Full discharge and charge of quasi–solid state Na-CO2 batteries.
  • fig. S23. Characterizations of curly carbon nanosheets.
  • fig. S24. Discharge/charge curves of quasi–solid state Na-CO2 batteries with new carbon cathodes that contain curly carbon nanosheets.
  • fig. S25. A device for SCE.
  • fig. S26. Discharge/charge profiles in SCE with PVDF film protection of quasi–solid state Na-CO2 batteries.
  • fig. S27. Discharge/charge profiles of quasi–solid state Na-CO2 batteries at 50°C.
  • fig. S28. The preparation and assembly of large batteries.
  • fig. S29. Pouch-type battery performance.
  • table S1. Battery performance comparison.
  • Legends for movies S1 and S2
  • References (31–41)

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • movie S1 (.mp4 format). Sudden reaction on GO foam.
  • movie S2 (.avi format). Molten Na infusion into rGO foam.

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