Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

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  • fig. S1. The 0.02-Hz oscillation is prominent for sigma power throughout both short and long non-REM sleep bouts in mice.
  • fig. S2. Scheme of analysis for 0.02-Hz oscillations in mice.
  • fig. S3. The 0.02-Hz oscillation is robust against the choice of non-REM sleep bout length for analysis and does not result from an 1/f power dependence.
  • fig. S4. The sigma power dynamics in both mice and humans show a periodicity on a 0.02-Hz time scale, as assessed through autocorrelations.
  • fig. S5. Scheme of analysis for 0.02-Hz oscillations in humans.
  • fig. S6. Sleep parameters for the participants of the studies in humans and predominance of 0.02-Hz oscillations in S2 sleep.
  • fig. S7. The 0.02-Hz oscillation is prominent for sigma power throughout early non-REM sleep in humans.
  • fig. S8. Sleep in head-fixed animals reproduces the three major vigilance states and their spectral characteristics found in freely moving animals.
  • fig. S9. Acoustic stimuli causing early or late wake-ups fall onto late or early portions of the declining sigma power phase, respectively.
  • fig. S10. Wake-up and sleep-through trials do not depend on previous sleep duration.
  • fig. S11. Ripple power increases precede sigma power elevations.
  • fig. S12. Nuchal EMG recordings faithfully detect the R-waves of the heartbeat in mice.

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