Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • fig. S1. Cruise route and AOD map.
  • fig. S2. Air mass back trajectories at 1500 m of each sampling station over the Yellow Sea.
  • fig. S3. The correlation of ESD and EAD based on AFM analysis.
  • fig. S4. TEM micrographs of an Fe-rich particle and a sulfate particle collected over the East China Sea.
  • fig. S5. Morphology and mixing state of Fe-rich and fly ash particles.
  • fig. S6. TEM image of Fe-rich and coal fly ash particles collected at sources.
  • fig. S7. Size distributions of Fe-rich and fly ash inclusions only and Fe-bearing particles.
  • fig. S8. NanoSIMS ion intensity of S, FeO, and FeS in standard samples.
  • fig. S9. Dark-field image and elemental mapping of an individual hematite-bearing particle (Exp. 1).
  • fig. S10. NanoSIMS ion intensity of C, CN, S, FeO, and FeS in individual particles collected over the Yellow Sea.
  • fig. S11. Dark-field image and elemental mapping of an internally mixed particle generated from ammonium sulfate solution (pH 5.6) mixed with coal fly ash.

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