Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • section S1. Evolution of the space charge region when varying the z-height of the STM tip
  • section S2. Detecting the donor ionization process
  • section S3. Exemplary fitting results of dI(td) curves of Fig. 1E
  • section S4. Logarithmic analysis of the decay spectra of Fig. 2B
  • section S5. Determining the donor depth
  • section S6. Temperature-dependent analysis of the dopant charging
  • section S7. Field-driven tunnel ionization from the donor level into the conduction band
  • section S8. Making a movie of dI(td), spatially resolved
  • fig. S1. Calculation (Poisson solver) of the tip-induced potential for varying tip heights above the GaAs surface.
  • fig. S2. Real-time evolutions of experimental parameters (hole density, ionized dopant density, and conduction band tunneling) at high tunnel currents and the corresponding screening configurations sketched in band schemes.
  • fig. S3. Two exemplary fitting results of the dI(td) spectra of Fig. 1E.
  • fig. S4. Exemplary fitting results of the dI(td) spectra of Fig. 1E in the transition region.
  • fig. S5. Decay spectra of Fig. 2B of the main manuscript plotted on normal and logarithmic scale.
  • fig. S6. Extracting the dopant depth from STM topographies.
  • fig. S7. Dopant relaxations, given in dI, plotted against the delay time td, for different temperatures.
  • fig. S8. Schematic for field-driven tunnel ionization.

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • movie S1 (.mp4 format). Spatiotemporally resolved decay of dI(td) at the dopants in Fig. 2A.

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