Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • section S1. Selection of STEC enhancers
  • section S2. Mechanical characterization of bulk freestanding films
  • section S3. Effect of STEC on PEDOT:PSS
  • section S4. Morphology of PEDOT/STEC film interior
  • section S5. Microscopy study of the effect of tensile strain on PEDOT/STEC films
  • section S6. Electrical properties of PEDOT/STEC films
  • section S7. Composition of PEDOT/STEC films
  • section S8. Low-temperature measurements
  • section S9. FoM for transparent conductors
  • section S10. Testing geometry for PEDOT films under tensile strain
  • section S11. Polarized UV-vis-NIR spectra for PEDOT films under tensile strain
  • section S12. Cycling stability and morphological change of PEDOT with STEC additives
  • section S13. Mixed ion-electron conductivity
  • section S14. PEDOT/STEC as interconnects for FET arrays
  • table S1. Summary of STEC structures and their effects on the electrical and mechanical properties of freestanding PEDOT:PSS films (thickness range, 150 to 200 μm) with 45.5 wt % of STEC.
  • table S2. Summary of mobility and threshold voltage shift for the 3 × 3 transistor arrays under 0 and 125% strain.
  • fig. S1. Plot summarizing the conductivity, maximum tensile strain, and Young’s modulus for freestanding PEDOT:PSS films (~150 μm in thickness) with all additives investigated in this paper.
  • fig. S2. Mechanical characterization of bulk freestanding films.
  • fig. S3. Mechanism behind STEC-induced morphology change for PEDOT:PSS films.
  • fig. S4. AFM phase images of PEDOT with various additives.
  • fig. S5. GIWAXS analyses of PEDOT films.
  • fig. S6. Diffraction data for PSS and insoluble PEDOT control samples.
  • fig. S7. Plasticizing effect of STEC on PEDOT and NaPSS individually.
  • fig. S8. SEM characterization of the cross section of a stretchable PEDOT film.
  • fig. S9. Optical microscope images of a PEDOT/STEC1 film supported on a SEBS substrate under various strains.
  • fig. S10. Optical microscope images of a PEDOT/STEC1 film supported on a SEBS substrate after being stretched to various strains and returned to its original length.
  • fig. S11. Surface profile analyses of PEDOT films after stretching.
  • fig. S12. Optical microscope images of a PEDOT/STEC1 film upon unloading from 100% strain.
  • fig. S13. Optical microscope images of a PEDOT/STEC2 film held under various tensile strains.
  • fig. S14. Optical microscope images of a PEDOT/STEC2 film upon stretching to various tensile strains.
  • fig. S15. Conductivity values of PEDOT/STEC films processed under different conditions.
  • fig. S16. Conductivity of PEDOT/STEC films with various STEC weight % before and after further STEC solution treatment.
  • fig. S17. Effect of further doping using STEC solution on spin-coated films.
  • fig. S18. Chemical composition of PEDOT/STEC films.
  • fig. S19. Temperature-dependent conductivity and first- and second-order temperature coefficients for PEDOT films.
  • fig. S20. Arrhenius plots for temperature dependent conductivity.
  • fig. S21. Schematic diagrams of tensile testing and conductivity measurement geometries.
  • fig. S22. Tension-induced chain-alignment behavior of PEDOT/STEC films.
  • fig. S23. XPS analysis of film surfaces under 0% versus 100% strain, after returning from 100% to 0% strain, and after 1000 stretching cycles to 100% strain.
  • fig. S24. Cycling stability of PEDOT/STEC1 films.
  • fig. S25. Cycling stability of PEDOT/STEC2 films.
  • fig. S26. Mixed ion-electron conductivity measurements.
  • fig. S27. Schematic showing the cross-sectional view of a linear rigid-island array connected with stretchable PEDOT.
  • fig. S28. Schematic diagrams illustrating strain calculation for rigid-island devices.
  • fig. S29. Schematic and transfer characteristics for a 3 × 1 FET array.
  • fig. S30. Schematic and transfer characteristics for a 3 × 3 FET array.
  • fig. S31. A 3 × 3 FET array being stretched on a spherical object.

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • video S1 (.mov format). A stretchable LED device poked with a sharp object.
  • video S2 (.mov format). Twisting and stretching of a stretchable LED device.
  • video S3 (.mov format). A 3 × 3 FET array stretched on a spherical object.

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